Anatomy Exam

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335 Terms
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What are organ systems?
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
What is the integumentary system?
What is the skeletal system?
protects and supports body organs, and provides frameworks the muscles use to cause movement.
What is the muscular system?
Consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joint
What is the nervous system?
Consists of the brain, spinal cord & nerves & it serves as the body's CONTROL SYSTEM
What is the endocrine system?
What is the cardiovascular system?
heart and blood vessels
What is the lymphatic system?
Lymph nodes, immune system
What is the respiratory system?
This system keeps the body's cells supplied with oxygen
What is the urinary system?
the excretory (urinary) system helps maintain the water & electrolyte balance in the body.
What is the digestive system?
consists of all organs from mouth to the anus involved in the ingestion and breakdown or processing of food.
What is the reproductive system?
Reproduce offspring- produce male sex cells (sperm) and female sex cells (oocytes)
What is homeostasis?
the ability of an organism to maintain consistent internal environment in response to changing internal or external conditions
What is an example of how humans maintain homeostasis?
body temperature--sweating, sickness--lymphatic system kicks in
What are the three components of homeostatic systems?
Receptor, Control Center, Effector
What is a condyle?
Large, smooth, rounded, oval structure
What is a facet
Small, flat, shallow surface
What is a head?
Prominent, rounded epiphysis
What is a trochlea?
Smooth, grooved, pulleylike process
What is an alveolus?
Deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible
What is a Fossa?
Flattened or shallow depression
What is a Sulcus?
Narrow groove
What is a Crest?
Narrow, prominent, ridgelike projection
What is a Epicondyle?
Projection adjacent to a condyle
What is a Line?
Low ridge
What is a process?
Any marked bony prominence
What is a Ramus?
Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure
What is a Spine?
Pointed, slender process
What is a Trochanter?
Massive, rough projection found only on the femur
What is a Tubercle?
Small, round projection
What is a Tuberosity?
Large, rough projection
What is a Meatus/Canal?
Passageway through the bone
What is a Fissure?
Narrow, slitlike opening through a bone
What is a Foramen?
Rounded passageway through the bone
What is a Sinus?
Cavity or hollow space in a bone
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Os coaxe
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Frontal Bone
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Parietal Bones
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Temporal Bones
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Occipital Bone
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Sphenoid bone
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Ethmoid Bone
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Zygomatic Bones
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Lacrimal Bones
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Nasal Bones
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Inferior Nasal Conchae
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Palatine Bones
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Hyoid Bone
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cervical vertebrae
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Thoracic Vertebrae
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Lumbar Vertebrae
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What are articulating surfaces?
condyle, facet, head, trochlea
What are depressions?
alveolus, fossa, sulcus
What are Projections?
crest, epicondyle, line, process, ramus, spine, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity
What are openings and spaces?
canal, fissure, foramen, meatus, sinus
What are condyles?
large, smooth, rounded articulating oval structure
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What are facets?
small, flat, shallow surface
What are heads?
prominent, rounded epiphysis
What are Trochiea?
smooth, grooved, pulley-like process
What is Etiology?
study of the cause of disease
What is Pathogenisis?
development of disease
What is anatomy?
The study of body structure
What is Physiology?
The study of body function
What is Microscopic Anatomy?
deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
What is Cytology?
study of cells
What is Histology?
study of tissues
What is systematic anatomy?
body structure is studied system by system
What is Regional Anatomy?
specific regions of the body such as the head or chest
What is surface anatomy?
the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
What is comparative anatomy?
The comparison of body structures and how they vary among species
What is embryology anatomy?
developmental changes that occur before birth
What is Pathologic Anatomy/Pathology?
examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease
What is radiographic anatomy?
investigates internal structures visualized by scanning procedures
What is cardiovascular physiology?
functions of the heart and blood vessels
What is Neurophysiology?
explains the workings of the nervous system
What is respiratory physiology?
functions of the air passageways and lungs
What is reproductive physiology?
the functioning of reproductive hormones and the reproductive cycle
What is dermotology?
study of the skin
What is a Proton?
a positively charged particle inside an atom's nucleus
What is a Neutron?
A small particle in the nucleus of the atom, with no electrical charge
What is an Electron?
negatively charged particle outside the nucleus
What is Energy?
the ability to do work
What is potential energy?
stored energy
What is kinetic energy?
energy of motion
What happens in Prophase?
Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
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What happens in metaphase?
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
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What happens in anaphase?
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
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What happens in telophase?
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
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What happens in cytokinesis?
division of the cytoplasm
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What is cilia?
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
What is flagella?
longer and wider than cilia; propels entire cell
What is microvilli?
projections that increase the cell's surface area
What are the 4 macromolecules?
lipids, carbs, proteins, nucleic acids
What are lipids?
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What are triglycerides?
an energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
What are phospholipids?
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
What are steroids?
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
What are proteins?
Chains of amino acids
What are nucleic acids?
What are carbohydrates?
sugars and starches
What is phagocytosis?
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
basement membrane
bottom between epithelial tissue and what's underneath it
Strata of Epidermis
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
What is organization level from smallest to largest
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
What is ATP cycling?
is the continues formation and breakdown of ATP. This cycling involves ATP formation(an endergonic reaction) and ATP splitting (an exergonic reaction). ATP is formed when energy is released in exergonic reactions using glucose or other fuel molecules from the foods we eat.
What is diffusion?
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is Osmosis?
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
What are ion pumps?
Carrier proteins that carry cations and anions across a plasma membrane
What is protein synthesis?
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
What are the major types of tissue?
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
What is epithelial tissue?
for protection, secretions, and sensations
What is muscular tissue?
for movement
What is nervous tissue?
for signals and communication
What is connective tissue?
provides support for your body and connects all its parts
What is Squamous?
longer than it is tall
What is Cuboidal?
cube shaped
What is Columnar?
taller than wide