Chapter 12: Smaller Ecdysozoans

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found in many protostomes, non-living outer layer secreted by the epidermis for protection, this is shed (molted) in order to grow, mainly made of collagen
This is the molting of the cuticle found in protostomes in order to grow
- Most abundant ecdysozoan - Dioecious (males are smaller than females) - Have the greatest impact on humans - Found in all habitats - Nematode parasites exist in nearly all animal and plant species - Cuticle is the primary protein in layers of the cuticle - Longitudinal muscles (no circular muscles) muscle extends to the nerve cords - Movement helps with digestion since GI tract does not contract on it's own - Four juvenile stages - Ameboid sperm that do not have flagellum or acrosome
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Nathan Augustus Cobb
"Father of nematology", provided foundations for nematode taxonomy
Caenorhabditis elegans
nematode that's genome is completely mapped, complete wiring diagram of it's nervous system is known, spectacular model system
Ascaris lumbricoides
large roundworm of humans, female lays 200,000 eggs a day which pass in host's feces, eggs can be found on plants and vegetables
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Copulatory Spicules
found in male nematodes, the "penis" of round worms
Amoeboid Sperm
This is in nematodes where the sperm has no flagella or acrosome
Found in infected animal feces. These larvae travel through the liver, lungs, and other organs. In most cases, these “wandering worms” cause no symptoms or obvious damage to humans
Necator americanus, burrows into skin that travels to the liver where it will reproduce in the blood
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Trichina Worms
infects pigs and found in pork that can travel to humans
most common worm parasite in the U.S., migrate to anal region and lays eggs that cause itching, scratching contaminates hands and bed clothes (very contagious)
Filarial Worms
can be found In the lymphatic system, causes inflammation and obstruction of lymphatic vessels
River Blindness
Onchocerciasis, carried by black flies and commonly affects people in Africa, Mideast, Central America, and South America, infects the eye
Dog Heartworm
Dirofilaria immitis, carried by mosquitoes and infects dogs hearts
Horsehair Worms
Nematomorpha, these are found in grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches and other small invertebrates, can infect humans but are mostly harmless to humans
Phylum Tardigrada
- Cryptobiosis - Can dehydrate 85% water to only 3% water (allows them to live without water and rehydrate when needed)
a state of extreme inactivity in response to adverse environmental conditions, all metabolic procedures stop, preventing reproduction, development, and repair. In Phylum Tardigrada