History 101 Exam Study Guide

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The first permanent English settlement (not the first overall) Initially struggled due to: Being in a swampy area (Resulted in disease outbreaks),Settlers were not accustomed to physical labor, and starvation
Mayflower Compact
Early form of Governing Document & Rudimentary Written constitution
Puritans and the impact of religion on early settlements
Early Puritan Settlements: Massachusetts Bay Colony - Puritan Early colonies like this one were settled through religious motivation
Indentured Servants
People who would work as servants for a certain period of time, and then would be citizens of the new world, they were TEMPORARY laborers, eventually replaced with slaves
Cash Crops in the American colonies
Tobacco, rice, indigo, sugar cane, cotton
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First written Constitution in America A Representative Gov't ruled by popular vote
What was Roger Williams religious idea and how did it differ from Puritan ideas
Roger Williams believed that someone's conscious was not controllable by civil or church authority
Why was the New England Confederation created?
For the colonies to defend themselves from Indian, French, or Dutch attack
What was the primary purpose of the founding of the colony of Georgia?
To act as a defensive "buffer" in between the colonies and Spanish Florida
Who was the founder of Georgia?
James Oglethorpe
What allowed Jamestown to survive?
The cash crop Tobacco
What was the Mayflower Compact?
Governing document created on the Mayflower;Rudimentary written constitution
What is a Proprietary Colony
Colonies under the rule of individuals granted charters from the King
Why were pilgrims known as separatist?
They wanted to separate from the Church of England
Factors that determined eligibility to vote in early colonial America.
Gender, race, religious affiliation, and/or land owned
What was the Great Migration?
The movement of many people to the Mass. Bay Colony due to a civil war in England
Why was Pennsylvania founded?
To provide refuge for Quakers and others persecuted, "The Holy Experiment" Also had a representative government, written constitution, and a written charter that guaranteed religious freedom and open immigration.
How did Anne Hutchinson's teachings differ from Puritan ideas?
She believed that faith, not teachings, were needed for salvation
Half Way Covenant
Puritans had to have a "profound religious experience" to convert However people were not having them, so Halfway Covenants were introduced to keep memberships up It allowed people to become partial members of the Puritan church without having a religious experience
Act of Toleration
Granted religious freedom to ALL christians, but not to those who denied Jesus Was repealed due to Protestant and Catholic conflict
Great Awakening cause
Christians were feeling complacent with their methods of worship Religious movement that swept through the colonies and increased religious zeal and excitement
Message of the Great Awakening
Ministers lost some influence. people no longer needed Ministers to explain the bible
Prominent Individuals of the Great Awakening
John Edwards and George Whitefield
Impact of the Great Awakening in Politics
Created a need for separation of state and church. This affected the Democratic state of the Colonies
Characteristic of Immigration on the Colonies
Most Protestants settled in the Mid-Atlantic colonies and Southern colonies, Fewer settled in New England because of the weather and puritans, they came from England and Germany. And Scotch-Irish.
Characteristics of Colonial Governmen
Self-government - representative assembly and voters that vote on governors. Democratically run under the authority of England.
Accomplishments of Benjamin Franklin
lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove
French and Indian War
Countries involved- France and England Outcome- England won and Pushed France out of the Ohio river valley. England Also gained Canada. peace treaty- Treaty of Parris 1763
French goal in the New World
create trading posts for the fur trade.
George Washington
gained fame in this war and he fought with the British.After gaining a small initial victory, ton's troops surrendered to a superior force of Frenchmen and their American Indian allies on July 3, 1754.
War launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of Native Americans dissatisfied with British rule in the Great Lakes region following the French and Indian War
Albany Plan of Union
Creator-Benjamin Franklin Goal-A system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes from the various colonies for their common defense.
Fort Duquesne
The French built a fort on the Ohio River to stop further British advancement into lands West of the Appalachian Mountains
Stamp Act
Taxed all paper including legal documents, newspapers
Sugar Act
Taxed sugar and other luxury items to raise money for the crown
Quartering Act
Required colonists to provide food and housing for the British soldiers
Townshend Act
Placed taxes on tea, glass, and paper, and furthered the quartering act.
Intolerable Act
Created to punish the people of Boston. Boston ports closed. Decreased power of Mass. legislature and increased power of Royal Governor.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac encouraged Ohio Country tribes to unite and to rise up against the British.To prevent the incursion of colonial settlers.
Olive Branch Petition
Was adopted by Congress on July 5th, 1775 to be sent to the King as a last attempt to prevent formal war from being declared.
American Revolution
1765-1783 Reason North American colonies rejected its imperial rule. The protest began in opposition to taxes levied without colonial representation by the British monarchy and Parliament. Result the colonists win over the british with help from france Strengths and weaknesses of both sides colonist: untrained, passionate, home territory, low population, low supplies British: Trained, not common with territory, lots of supplies and population
First Continental Congress
The meeting of 12 of the 13 colonies that would become the United States. They discussed the future of America. Most delegates wanted to restore relations with Britain, but none wanted to remain loyal to the crown.
Common Sense
A book by Thomas Paine argued that the colonies should break ties with Britain and become independent states. A large continent shouldn't be ruled by a "small distant island"
Battle of Saratoga
(Oct. 1777) Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold led America to victory against the British. The British were forced to surrender. This was the first major win for the Patriots. France, Spain, and Holland joined the war against Britain.
Battle of Bunker Hill
(June 1775) The British attacked the colonists and took the hill. The Americans claimed victory, though, because the British suffered heavy losses.
Battle of Valley Forge
(1777-1778) Washington's troops suffered a severe winter camped at Valley Forge. This was an iconic moment of suffering and perseverance for the Patriots.
Paul Revere
He and William Dawes warned the militia of Lexinton about the incoming British troops in Boston.
Second Continental Congress
(May 1775) Conference in Philadelphia. George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief, a force was organized under Benedict Arnold, and they debated about independence vs having a relationship with the British. They issued the Declaration of the Cause and Necessities for Taking Up Arms.
Declaration of Independence
Richard Henry Lee introduced the idea in June of 1776. Jefferson wrote the official document and signed it on July 4th, 1776. This was a move towards independence and outlined their grievances against Britain.
Motivation of Impact of African Americans in the American Revolution
Enslaved African Americans were trying to gain freedom. Around 20,000 African Americans joined the side of the British because of that.
Articles of Confederation
America's first constitution. It was filled with issues and caused lots of problems. It had a 1 house Congress, no executive or judicial branch, and there were no national taxes, which meant the government had no revenue.
Anti-Federalist views on A of C/Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists supported the Articles of Confederation because the government didn't have much power. They opposed the Constitution, but would be okay with it if the Bill of Rights was passed because they didn't want the government to have too much power.
1st and 2nd Constitutional convention
Issues Larger states have more representatives than smaller states & slavery compromises Connecticut Plan / The Great Compromise (2 house Congress) & 3/5 Compromise (slaves would count as 3/5 of a person and were allowed to be imported for 20 years)
Strengths and weaknesses of the new Constitution
Strong central government that could become too powerful; was supported by the Federalists but not supported by Anti-Federalists
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Program
Pay off national debt, federal government absorbs state debts, high tariffs on imports, and create a National Bank, which was supported by Washington
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Declared the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional because they overstepped federal authority
Alien Sedition Acts/impact on the Federalist Party
The Federalists were heavily criticized and lost their majority in Congress
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson vs Aaron Burr - Jefferson won
Federalist National View
Federalists wanted a strong central government, indirect election of government officials, and representatives
Stance on tariffs They opposed tariffs Stance on farmers and industry They favored small farmers over industry
Jay's Treaty
A treaty with Britain over impressment. John Jay was sent over to tell them to stop taking their ships. Got them to stay out of NW America
XYZ Affair
French officials (XYZ) sparked an anti-French feeling in America, lots of people wanted to go to war with them but John Adams decided not to
Election of 1796
John Adams VS Thomas Jefferson (Adams won)
Pinckney Treaty
Treaty with Spain, opened trade routes along the Mississippi river
Washington's first cabinet
Secretary of State: TJ, Secretary of Treasury: AH, Secretary of War Henry Knox, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Wanted the gov't to repay federal and state debts
Marbury vs Madison decision
Marbury sued for commission. Established Judicial review.
War of 1812
About Navy rights and stuff Ended w/ treaty of Ghent
Natives' role in the War of 1812
Helped fight against the Americans because they didn't like them on their land.
Louisiana Purchase
What TJ is known best for Purchased from France New Orleans no longer a trade option TJ worried that if a foreign country controlled New Orleans U.S. risked being involved in foreign affairs Napoleon lost interest in the territory France lost to Toussaint L'Ouverture in Haiti America prepared to offer $10 million for New Orleans, Napoleon offered for $15 million
Effects of the Louisiana Purchase
Doubled the size of America Lessened European presence in NA Increased TJ popularity Showed Federalists as weak
Thomas Jefferson and the elections of 1800 and 1804
Won in a landslide All but 14 electoral votes Aaron Burr not elected for a second term as VP
British soldiers impress American sailors into service
War Hawks
Radical Pro-War Democrat Reps from the new Western states
The Shawnee leader who united tribes East of the Mississippi river to help defeat the Americans
Lewis and Clark
Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore in 1804. Crossed into the Rockies and the Pacific.
Judicial Review
Precedent that someone can review past laws and declare them unconstitutional, was established in Marbury V. Madison.
William Henry Harrison destroyed Shawnee headquarters and ends Tecumseh's efforts
Treaty of Greenville
Aimed to end hostilities between the Great Lakes
Monroe Doctrine
any interference in latin america would be seen as an act of aggression against america not used at first used a lot more later
Cotton Gin
Made by eli whitney made processing cotton faster and increased use of slaves
Erie Canal
connected farms to cities better prices
Henry Clay and his American System
protect tariffs, National banks, internal improvements
Era of Good Feelings
President James Monroe Why? One dominant party, peace,lot of optimism and nationalism, got florida
Issue of Slavery
became a large debate between the north and south and sectionalism became rampant and would lead to civil war
President Monroe's constitutional issue
did not have the right to build infrastructure so they left it up to the states
Tariff of 1816
Henry clay's first protective tariff
Missouri Compromise
Impact Divided North and south over issue of slavery on the 36 parallel Vermont and kentucky became states there was a divide between nationalism and sectionalism
Acquisition of the state of Florida
Who was involved in this acquisition? Andrew jackson sent to deal with seminoles raiders then spain scared america would just take florida sold it
Population Growth in the Early 1800s
Reason immigrants from europe Impact increased american population and made us the melting pot
Cumberland Road
paved road connecting ohio indiana illinois in the west
connected westward cities like CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI, DETROIT, AND CHICAGO
Lancaster Turnpike
one of the first paved roads of america
Eli Whitney
made the cotton gin
Purpose/goal get better hours and pay and conditions First Labor Party could not find sorry Commonwealth vs Hunt Decided if unions were legal
Impact of the Embargo Act and War of 1812
screwed over american economy the embargo act did not allow any usa ships to sail to foreign ports and the war of 1812 did nothing but drain the economy and burn the white house and started by impression of american sailors
Conditions of early Urban living
Crowded, poor sanitation, disease, high crime rates
Why did people continue to move to Urban areas?
Opportunity for a better life and people like them lived there (Irish in Boston)
Tenant Farmer, Catholic, Democrats, moved to America because of the potato famine
Midwest, anti-slavery, pro-education
Protestants who were anti-catholic, Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, Anti-Immigrant, Know Nothing party
Why did the South fail to industrialize like the North?-
$ went to slave labor, not investing in industry
What were some important southern cities at this time?
Atlanta, Charleston, Chattanooga, Richmond
How were slavery and religion connected?
Many Southerners used the bible to justify slavery
the use of insults and accusations, especially unjust ones, with the aim of damaging the reputation of an opponent.
Indian Removal Act?
Forced N.A. living East of the Mississippi River to move to "Indian Territory" In Oklahoma, some did not follow this
The growing divide between the industrial North and the agricultural South
Textile Industry
This was the main reason for the North's industrialization, as they quickly made factories and lots of money off of this
King Cotton
This was the South's big item, everybody wanted and needed it and the South grew it through the use of plantations and slaves
Purpose- Mainly used in the South to work for white farm and plantation owners Life- Families were torn apart and overall treated badly Restrictions- Slave codes were made and they were not allowed an education Revolts- Slaves would work slowly or break items, resulting in punishment
Industrial Growth in the Northeast
Impact- Urban cities popped up, and the North now relied on creating products and building factories, which further divided the north and south Living conditions- Crowded, poor sanitation = spread of Disease, high Crime areas Facts About- Living in and around the major cities(Boston/Baltimore), 5-10% of the population, Unions were created to protect workers
Free African Americans
1% of the Northern Population, some job opportunities but not equal advantages, Racial Issues = Not getting or keeping certain jobs, no Voting, no Unions,had to have legal papers stating their freedom
Slavery- Many Southern religions used the Bible and religion to justify slavery. Immigration- Many groups were at odds with each other due to differing religious views, mainly the Irish Catholics
Bill of rights
First 10 Amendments
1st Amendment
Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms
3rd Amendment
No quartering of soldiers
4th Amendment
Protection against Unreasonable Search and Seizure
5th Amendment
The Right to Remain Silent/Double Jeopardy, right to due process
6th Amendment
The right to a Speedy Trial by jury, representation by an attorney for an accused person
7th Amendment
Right to jury in civil trials.
8th Amendment
No cruel or unusual punishment
9th Amendment
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution
10th Amendment
Powers not given to federal government go to people and States
Identify the primary economic activities of the North and South prior to the Civil War.
The north was an industrialized society with 80% of clothing and goods made there. The south was almost entirely agricultural and farming
Location of the first shots of the Civil War
April 12, 1861. In Fort Sumter Charleston, South Carolina
Border States
Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland. They were important because if those states left the union it would improve America's chances of winning the war, since they had straight shot into Confederate territory.
First State to succeed
South Carolina in 1860
President of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis from Mississippi with Alexander Stephans from Georgia as VP
North advantages in Civil War
already industrialized and invented more efficient equipment, their population had 14 million more people than the south, Since there were so many, it didn't impact the working force when some had to go off to war, and they had a very strong army.
South advatages in Civil War
fighting in a defendant war (they were protecting their way of life) and led them to be more passionate about winning. They were fighting in their home field so they were closer and knew the land, and they also had strong military leaders.
Emancipation Proclamation
stated that all slaves in states in war against the union are now free and forever will be.
John Wilkes Booth
the guy who shot and killed Abraham Lincoln. He was a confederalist sympathizer/actor.
President Lincoln's assassination
Where? April 4, 1865 In The Ford's Theatre Why? He was a confederate politician and thought killing him would give the CSA an upper hand.
Ulysses S. Grant
He was a very strong union military leader who was in charge during Shiloh, Vicksburg, and gettysburg
Purpose of the War from both the Northern and Southern perspectives.
The north saw the war as a way to keep the country together and also as a way to get rid of slavery. The south saw it as a way to fight to live how they want to and to spread slavery to the whole country, or just to leave and make their own lil "country"
Battle of Antietam
Robert E Lee, a southern general, hoped that a southern victory would swoon Britain into helping them, as cotton was important in their textile industry. It was the bloodiest single day of the war with 23k soldiers killed. The south dropped their battle plans and the north found it, so they won (kinda) and John McClellan was fired by lincoln for being slow
13th Amendment
December 6, 1865, 8 months after Lincoln's death. It was the official document from the government making slavery illegal.
West Virginia/Virginia
West Virginia broke off from Virginia when it seceded due to west Virginia not having many slaves due to rocky terrain not good for farming
Capitals of the Confederacy
-Montgomery, AL -Richmond, VA -Danville, Va