APWH Ch 2 Unit 1 Study Guide

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From 960-1279, the Song dynasty was defined as a "golden age" of Chinese arts and literature. The Song dynasty created a bureaucracy in which six major ministries were seen by the Censorate. To staff this bureaucracy, an examination system (revived from the Han dynasty) provided a modest measure of social mobility in a hierarchical society. Song dynasty China, in short, offered a mixture of tightening restrictions and new opportunities to women.
A city of eastern China on Hangzhou Bay, the capital of the Song dynasty; regarded by Marco Polo as "the finest city in the world"
A phonetic alphabet used for writing in Korean, developed around the mid-1400s
The traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage, loyalty, self-discipline and simple living.
-great skill in martial arts;
-preference for death over surrender;
"The way of the warrior"
An Arab dynasty of caliphs (successors to the Prophet) who ruled the Islamic world from 750 CE until its fall to the Mongols in 1258 (who ruled much of Persia for a long time). The Arab dynasty's political grip on the Empire slipped away fairly quickly as many governors and military commanders assumed autonomy of their regions whilst giving allegiance to the caliph in Baghdad.
An empire of the 11th and 12th centuries, centered in Persia and some of modern-day Iraq. Seljuk rulers adopted the title of "sultan" (ruler) as part of their Islamic conversion. By 1200, the Islamic heartland had fragmented into "sultanates", many ruled by Persian or Turkish dynasties.
A Turkish sultanate that had migrated into Anatolia, carving out a state that consisted of southwestern Asia, northeastern Africa and the Balkans, bringing long-term political unity to the Middle East and North Africa. 
During the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire extended its control to the Middle East, Egypt, coastal North Africa, the lands around the Black Sea, and Eastern Europe, and it lasted in one form or another from the 14th to early 20th century.
The Ottoman Empire brought cultural, political, and economic significance that only the Incas and Ming dynasty China could rival.
Also known as Byzantium, the Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire after its division in 395, standing with Constantinople as its capital. It reigned as the most sophisticated and powerful Christian empire and civilization, entering a terminal decline in 1200, until Constantinople was overrun by the Ottoman Empire.
A culturally diverse state that emerged around the city of Kiev (Kyiv) in the ninth century and adopted Christianity in the tenth century, thus linking them to the Eastern Orthodox belief of the Byzantine Empire
A major civilization of Mesoamerica known for the most elaborate writing system and other intellectual achievements such as the mathematical concept of zero, and they flourished from 250 to 900 CE in a region of modern-day Guatemala and the Yucatan region of Mexico during this time.

-Organized into a highly fragmented political system of city-states
-Local lords and regional kingdoms
-No central authority/frequent warfare
A major state that developed in what is now Mexico in 1345 to 1528, with Tenochtitlan as its capital city; the last and largest of the Mesoamerican states to emerge before Spanish conquest in the region during the early 16th century.
-Formed largely by the work of the Mexica people who formed a Triple Alliance with two nearby city-states
-Population of 5 to 6 million, causing frequent rebellions from its subject people
-Conquered peoples and cities were required to provide labor for Aztec rulers, providing them with supplies, clothing/textiles, and more. 
-Believed in human sacrifice, especially toward slaves
Massive sacrificial rituals, together with great wealth, impressed enemies, allies and subjects with the immense power of the Aztecs.
The largest imperial state in the Western Hemisphere from 1438 to 1533, stretching about 2,500 miles along the Andes mountains and containing about 10 million subjects during its short life.
-Incorporated lands and cultures of earlier Andean civilizations
-More bureaucratic and intrusive empire as opposed to the Aztecs, who largely left their people alone if their contributions were satisfactory
-At the top reigned the emperor
-Machu Picchu
-The Incas required their subject peoples to acknowledge major Inca deities, but the peoples were free to carry on with their religious traditions
-A form of labor that contributed toward the Inca Empire, known as "mita", was required periodically from every household
-Gender parallelism: when both genders have their own distinct roles that also complement each other; "men broke the ground, women sowed, and both enjoyed the harvest"
Janissary was a member of the elite infantry of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Janissaries were highly sophisticated and uniform in their method of conquering territories.