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Psych of Learning (Exam 3)

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45 Terms
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Structural Verbal Behavior
focuses on how the grammar, syntax, & processes of language influence our behavior
Functional Verbal Behavior
focuses on the operating contingencies in the environment that control the speaker's behavior
Consequences of Verbal Behavior
reinforced through another person's behavior which is evoked by stimulus (visual, auditory, tactile)
Non-verbal Stimulus
object, object property, action, relation
Verbal Stimulus
written or spoken word, number, symbol
Manding / The Mand Relation
response form controlled by CURRENT ESTALISHING OPERATION, or controlled by what the speaker wants from the listener (from the word "command" or "demand") ex. kid asks for ball when they want to play with it
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Things Manded For & Examples
- Attention ("hey!") - Objects ("water") - Actions ("come here") Ex. speaking, writing, signing, finger spelling, morse cord, point at words, symbol, or pic
Mand Applied Examples
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The Tact Relation
response form controlled by an immediately prior NON-VERBAL DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS, such as labeling something within their environment (from the word "contact") ex. you smell popcorn & say, "mmm, popcorn!"
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Tacts Applied Examples
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Mands vs Tacts
- Mands: allow speakers to alter environment through listeners' behavior - Tacts: permits listeners to react to stimuli affecting speakers *reinforcing verbal behavior enhances the effectiveness of the entire verbal community*
Functional Independence
verbal operants have to be functionally independent, if they're learned separately then they can't say it in all contexts and the word only developed a single function ex. you ask a child "what is this?" - "banana" then ask to "tell me a yellow fruit" - no response
Intraverbals / The Interverbal Relation
- verbal response form controlled by a VERBAL STIMULUS - no point-to-point correspondence between the response & verbal stimulus
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Intraverbal Applied Examples
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Duplics (Echoic) Relation
- response form controlled by verbal stimulus - formal similarity between response & verbal stimulus (speaker repeats what's heard) - point-to-point correspondence between response & verbal stimulus
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Duplic/Echoic Applied Examples
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Codic Relation
response form controlled by a verbal stimulus with point-to-point correspondence
Textuals (codic) vs Echoic (duplic)
- Textuals: visual stimulus = vocal response (ex. reading text out loud) - Echoic: auditory stimulus = written response (ex. writing down what you hear)
Codic Applied Examples
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Forms of Verbal Responses
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Point-to-Point Correspondence
response is the same word (or phoneme) as stimulus
Formal Similarity
response & stimulus are in the same sense mode
Audience Control
a non-verbal stimulus that controls the form of a verbal response (not necessarily a person)
Generalized Imitation
learning to imitate others (we learn "imitation" as a behavior rather than learning to imitate specific response)
Precurrent Behavior
many rules are designed to evoke precurrent behavior which is behavior that precedes & mediates other behavior ex. making a grocery list = Sd for certain items
Rules
- Specifies behavior: may not be exact behavior, but the effects of it - Specifies the contingency: clarifies the consequences associated w/ certain actions
Contingency-Shaped Behavior
the contingency is actually contacts ex. if you speed, then you'll receive a fine
Rule-Governed Behavior
you do something because of a rule ex. you don't speed bc you known there's a fine if you do
Applied (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
behavior or organism is of interest to society ex. studying how seat belt use increases likelihood of survival
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Behavioral (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
specific behaviors are targeted for the interventions ex. "does training mands also help in training echoics?"
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Analytic (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
Identifies the functional relationship between behavior & environmental variables ex. "what effect does the removal of the death penalty have on the rate of homicides?"
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Generalizable (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
★ Generalization: demo of control over behavior - Stimulus: similar stimuli evoke same response - Response: same stimulus evokes multiple types of responses - Response Maintenance: response continues to occur long after treatment
Effective (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
interventions produce socially significant changes in behavior (p-value used as a test of statistical significance)
Technological (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
interventions are clear & replicable ex. following a recipe with specific steps
Conceptually Systematic (dimensions of applied behavior analysis)
procedures are described based on the behavioral principles ex. a behavioral analyst is reviewing their client's treatment plan with the parents
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
reinforcement contingent on absence of target behavior for set duration ex. saying "nice job!" for every 5 mins w/o whining
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
reinforcement contingent on occurrence of specific behavior ex. giving a cookie for asking nicely
Why might it be difficult to use a reversal design in the natural environment?
in natural settings, behavior is often resistant to a reversal procedure
Contingency Management Approach to Reduce Substance Abuse
managing the contingencies in place for use or non-use of harmful substances
In which cases do behavior analysts support the use of electric skin shock?
"we strongly oppose the use of contingent electric skin shock (CESS) under any condition"
NeuroDivergent
nonmedical term to describe people whose brain develops or works differently for some reason.
ABA Therapy
ABA services is to habilitate an individual ↪ habilitation involves teaching the skills needed to live as independently as possible
Overjustification Effect
- performance decreases below baseline levels after a reward is removed - not an issue of ABA but of how/why reinforcers are delivered
What issues did Leaf et al. have with Kupferstein’s study?
1. Hypothesis testing bias 2. Indirect measures: surveys self-report inaccurate data 3. Respondent selection: bland group w/ some self-diagnosed w/ ASA 4. Ambiguity of ABA: research design flawed 5. Measurement: not using tools to full potential (PCL-5 assessment) Kupferstein’s study had major methodological & conceptual flaws with a biased analysis that barely had evidence to support these claims. Should be more considerate that ABA-based interventions could be potentially traumatic for those receiving it.
What metaphorical comparison is Skinner making between a hen having an egg and a poet having a poem (p. 351 – On Having a Poem)? What does he mean by “who deserves credit?” What control does he suggest a poet has over the poem produced?
He compares how the hen & the poet is responsible for producing the egg & poem. However, he inquires which deserve the credit, as if the poet originate the poem or did his behavior merely the product of his genetic & environmental histories.