Art of the Aegean Exam 1

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88 Terms
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Cycladic Islands
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Franchthi Cave (map)
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Fournou Korifi
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Frying Pan
Cycladic art piece, not actually a frying pan, maybe a mirror?, symbolic spirals, long boats, etched bronze
material used to smooth/polish stone, mostly marble for sculpture, emery is common
Absolute Chronology
assigning exact dates to things (as opposed to relative chronology where you are estimating based on things before and after)
Abutting Walls
two walls that touch each other but were built at different times
Agglutinative Growth
how buildings get added on to over time with abutting walls
Attribution (to an artist/master)
saying a piece is from an ancient artist (whether it is or not) to give it higher monetary value, usually based on a set of similar characteristics
Bonding Walls
the way you lay brick and hold them together to keep the wall standing
usually a copper and tin alloy that is shiny and can be molded and crafted into weapons, sculpture and practical wares
Bronze Age
the time after the copper age, in Greece (3,000-1050 BC)
prehistoric Deer that Strasser talked a lot about in his article
Canon of Proportions
stencil used to make sure art carvings were equally proportional, Egyptians had them, unsure if Cyclades used them for their figurines
Cist Grave
a stone grave used to house the bodies of the dead, usually have grave goods and some sort of marker
Corridor House
Lerna, houses with long corridors on the sides with stairwells that lead to the 2nd story
the civilization that exists on the Cycladic Islands
abrasive stone used for smoothing marble
Ethnographic Parallel/Comparison
looking at current civilization practices and traditions to link archaeological evidence to an ancient practice or tradition
Folded-Arm-Figure (FAF)
Cycladic form of stone sculpture of a (typically) female figure with crossed arms
Franchthi Cave (term)
Southern Greek cave just above sea level with archaeological evidence dating back to the Paleolithic period (20,000 BC), but most known for the mesolithic burials and Neolithic architecture
Ghost of Paint
basically the negative space left on a figure where paint was that protected the stone against the weathering and sun damage that happened to the rest of the statue
a center fireplace in most dwellings (Tsoungiza had a clay one at the center)
Hellenic Arc
the stretch of the European continent that abuts the African continent and basically outlines Greece down to Crete and back up to Anatolia
Herringbone Masonry
a specific alternating pattern of laying bricks that the house of the tiles used in Lerna
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Incised Decoration
Keros-Syros Artifacts had this, basically you cut designs into pottery
Kernos (Kernoi)
multiple cups attached to a centerpiece that was used a multi-offering vessel
seen on the Cycladic frying pan, basically a long sailing vessel for traversing the Aegean Sea in the Bronze Age
Lyre-Shaped Head
seen on the Spedos variety of Cycladic figurines
In Dimini, it's the largest room in the Mycenaean palace complexes that held lots of pots filled with goods and figurines
Transitional period of the Stone Age between Paleolithic and Neolithic (8,000-5,000 BC)
Ancient civilization based in Knossos on the island of Crete
Ancient King of the Minoan civilization, known for starting the Minotaur legend
mythological half bull/half human that lived in the labyrinth below King Minos's tower and ate the yearly tribute of 12 athenian's every year until Theseus killed him
the method of sun-drying mud into bricks to use for infrastructure, we have some at the House of the Tiles because they got fired and preserved when it burned down
Naturalistic Art
The Minoan practice of decorating their fresco with many examples of natural depictions such as animals, foliage and landscapes
The settling down of nomadic groups at the end of the Stone Age before the Bronze Age, find a lot of inhumations, stone tools and early buildings (6000-3000 BC)
Volcanic glass that can be chipped into very sharp and very useful tools
Earliest part of the Stone Age since they hadn't yet developed ways of smelting metals, nomadic peoples, mostly find camp site remains and stone tools (300,000-6,000 BC)
Peloponnese (term)
Southern region of Greece where the Mycenaean culture was based
Paleolithic form of art done by carving into a stone wall
Pithos (Pithoi)
a large ceramic vase used for storing things
Prepalatial Period
the early Minoan period from 3000-1900BC
where did you buy the artifact from, who owned it before you, what museums has it been in
where did the artifact come from, meaning what grave, what site, what country
Pubic Triangle
a geometric depiction of female genitalia that appears on many Stone Age/EBA art pieces
a grave good little jar that could have been for cosmetics
Rectilinear Plan/Layout
a building design theme that consists primarily of straight lines, right angles, and square or rectangular shapes
Relative Chronology
placing things into time periods based on things that are definitely older and definitely newer to give it a relative date (as apposed to absolute chronology which has an actual year attached to it)
Representational Art
an art style that employs the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else
Rubble Masonry
masonry that uses irregularly shaped stones, sometimes minimally worked or selected for similar size (basically they just stack a bunch of stones that are close enough to the same size)
Lerna type of ceramic pottery that could have been used for anything, but it kind of looks like a gravy boat
Schematic or Abstract Art
art that is usually very geometric and only vaguely resembles what it is representing
a tool with carvings on one end that you would press into wax or clay to leave the impression
Seal Impression
the impression left in wax or clay from a seal
the lower foundational part of the fortification wall that projects above the floor level
Stamped Decoration
seen in the Cycladic frying pans, carved into bronze by nailing designs into the soft metal or clay
Stamped Spirals
the spirals are symbolic of a journey and are made using the stamped decoration technique
layers of archaeological material that lets us relative date the various levels
an image that is duplicated on two sides of an axis
fired clay
Vasiliki Ware
Minoan pottery that looks like a tea pot
art representing animal forms or gods of animal form
Lady of Lerna
Neolithic, terracotta, found in Lerna 1 house along with 10 graves
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House of Tiles, Lerna
Early Helladic, 2-story corridor house made of stone base and mud brick, plaster on inner walls, terracotta tiles, burnt down and fired everything which is why we have it
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Seals and Seal Impressions, Lerna
Early Helladic, found in the house of tiles, found both the carved seals and the seal impressions in fired clay
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Cycladic Figurines - Schematic/Violin
marble, Grotta-Pelos Culture, ca. 3100/3000 - 2650 B.C.
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Cycladic Figurines - Plastiras
marble, Grotta-Pelos Culture, ca. 3100/3000 - 2650 B.C.
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Cycladic Figurines - Spedos
marble, Keros-Syros Culture ca. 2650-2450/2400 B.C.
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Cycladic Figurines - Dokathismata
marble, developed from the Spedos variety
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Cycladic Figurines - Non-Canonical Varieties
marble, they don't fit into a particular canon, musicians, men with baldrics, women with different hand placement
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Cycladic Frying Pans - Kampos Group
clay, incised decoration, transitional between the ECI Grotta-Pelos and ECII Keros-Syros Culture, maybe center represents the sun
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Cycladic Frying Pans - Keros-Syros
clay, depiction of a long boat, swirls depict wind/water/journeying, pubic triangle at the bottom
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Potter's Disks, Fournou Korifi
Pre-Palatial, Early Minoan IIA, basically used to shape wet clay, but it didn't spin how we think of a potter's wheel, it was more just a plate
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Vasiliki Ware Pottery
Pre-Palatial, Early Minoan IIB, basically a pitcher, made to look like stone even thought its terracotta, also had painted designs
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Myrtos Goddess
Pre-Palatial, Early Minoan II, (not the turtle goddess), found in room 92, maybe a votive figure, has an apron painted on, could have a pubic triangle
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Essay Question 1
Applying what you have learned from lectures, readings, and class discussions, compare and contrast the roughly contemporary Early Bronze Age sites of Lerna (in southern Greece) and Myrtos Phournou Koryphi (in eastern Crete) in terms of history, development and architectural forms. What does the study of the material culture (art & artifacts) and the built environment (architecture) suggest about their respective cultures, communities, and social identities?
Essay Question 2
Applying what you have learned from lectures, readings, and class discussions, discuss the interpretation of Cycladic Folded-Arm-Figures. How have these objects been interpreted by art historians? What kinds of evidence have scholars used, and what are some of the pros and cons of their approaches? In particular, compare and contrast the approaches and interpretations of G. Hoffman and E. Hendrix. (HINT: Read BOTH articles!)