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European Revolutions

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32 Terms
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Scientific Revolution
New inventions- (1543 Europe) Telescope, Microscope, and improved printing press help scientists with studies. Math is important and studied to make calculations and to provide accuracy.
Inventions in the Revolution
Telescope- Late 16th century Microscope- Early 1600s Improved Printing Press
Ptolemaic System
100 AD - Also known as Geocentric. Earth is the center of the universe. God is outside watching.
Heliocentric System
Created in 1543 by Polish man Nicolaus Copernicus. The sun is the center of the universe.
Laws of Planetary Motion
Johannes Kepler (German). Planets revolve around the sun in an oval/egg pattern.
Galileo
Italian 1564-1642. Used Telescope to look into outer space and declared a new universe. Saw moon on Jupiter- Light in sky (stars) are made of matter, not heavenly substances, *focus on humans not God* RCC did not like him or this belief.
Isaac Newton
1642- Laws of gravitation - Planets rotate because of gravity Apple hit him in the head and he thinks about it.
Medicine
Learning about the body The heart is crucial to a body working, other organs were discovered as well. French come up with syringes (needles) Chemistry - Antoine Lavoisier comes up with elements which help for the periodic table later.
Francis Bacon
Created the scientific method in 1620 A system with 5 steps that is used for collecting and analysing evidence to help solve two questions. (experiment) Science/math can help all parts of life?
Enlightenment
1685 - Led by reason, natural law (dislike absolute monarchs want choice) hope, and progress (science and secular society). People who led it were called Philosopher's-thinks w/ ideas (believed they help lower classes) Most were nobility or middle class, French or English.
Who are some philosophers?
John Locke Jean Rousseau Adam Smith
Secular
Society that is less focused on religion.
Montesquieu
1689- 1755 French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers Checks and Balances- provides each branch of government with individual powers to check the other branches and prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. Believed that the liberty of the people must be protected from corrupt leaders
Voltaire
1694 - 1778 From France - Believed in tolerance, reason, and limited government Disliked the churches (no tolerance) but liked the morality of them "I disprove of what you say, but I will defend your right till the death to say it."
John Locke
England 1632-1704 - Believed that all people had Natural right; life, liberty, and property The purpose of Government is to protect these rights
Jean Rousseau
French man- He believed that people were enslaved by the government. Wrote the 1762 social contract. This stated that People consent to be ruled by a government. If the government fails to meet the needs of the people, the people have the right to overthrow the government.
Adam Smith
From Scotland- He wrote the Wealth of Nations in 1776. It promoted capitalism. Laissez Faire- keeping government out of business Gov't builds infrastructure (roads/bridges) and protects citizens rights and property Capitalism- Free exchange and markets (voluntary) People have their own businesses and run it their way (no laws) Sells items at market prive (price that people will pay, supply and demand) Failures are your own. No help
National Assembly (Estates General)
May 1789 1st and 2nd estates- 300 reps of clergy and nobles 3rd estate- 600 reps of commoners- They wanted a constitution and taxes to be for everyone. Voting- Was unfair because each estate has 1 vote and the 1st and 2nd estates van vote together and defeat the 3rd estate calls this unfair they want 1 vote per person. King Louis 16th does not want individual votes.
Start of the French Revolution
June 17 the 3rd estate says that they will write a constitution w/o permission (we are the National Assembly) June 20 1st and 2nd estates locked the 3rd estate from the meeting. This caused the 3rd estate to go to the tennis court and vows to have a constitution. King Louis the 16th was not smart and did not want to shoot them. Days later, the 900 commoners destroy the Bastile (prison) in Paris They free the prisoners and behead the warden, and put his head on a stick. They take over Paris. The revolution starts all over France and wealthy clergy, and families are killed.
Tennis Court Oath
On June 20 The French third estate took over the tennis court "not to separate and to reassemble wherever necessary until the Constitution of the kingdom is established."
Louis XVI (16th)
Came into power in 1774 and was a noble of France. Married to Antoinette. Was fat In October commoners who were women to Versailles to kidnap royal family members. These women were made at not having food for their children. Jacobins were radicals from Paris. They believed that Louis needed to get executed because he was an enemy. Executed by the Guillotine in 1793.
Marie Antoinette
Was the queen of France. She was Austrian and she and LouisÅ› marriage showed that Austria was not an enemy. She spent a lot of the French tax money on dresses and hairstyles. This was one of the factors in the French budget collapsing. When the commoners were asking for food Marie said the famous line, *Let them eat cake.* This made the women even madder and they chased after her in the Versailles holding pitchforks. Marie was able to escape and meet up with Louis. They tried to escape to Austria dressed as servants bc Marie had family there. They were stopped right before they were about to enter Germany and were sent back. Did not give food to ppl since there were no government programs during that time. Became prisoner to France. Was executed in 1792 for being condemned w/ treason.
Max Robespierre
Reign of terror (1793-1794) -France forms a committee of Public Safety (12 members) to help the country from foreign affairs Robespierre is a radical and is the leader. Any threat to the Gov was executed by the Guillotine- 40,000 people (15% were nobles, the rest were commoners) were executed Education provided and slavery was abolished. More secular and democratic. Society built on reason and science.)
Reign of Terror (continued)
Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality. RCC was restricted and sundays were attempted to be eliminated.
The Directory
1795 constitution. This sets up another republic Legislator (500 lower house/ 250 upper house) Executive (leaders) the directory (1794-99) a council of 5 members. Very corrupt and relied on military to stay in power. 1799- Napoleon Bonaparte- coup d'etat (overthrows) the directory and gains power
Rise of Napoleon
Born in 1769 on Italian Island Corisa but will take over France. Smart Military Mind, Arrogant, Short French Military school officers hate him soldiers love him. 1796 was commander of French army in Italy wins battles with speed and surprise (flanking) Napoleonic fashion- win and crush enemy
Napoleon War
1799 was sent to attack the British (can win bc of their navy *sea*) so he strikes Egypt- he is defeated and goes to Paris. He overthrows the directory and becomes 1st consul- the first leader of France. He crowned himself instead of Pope. 1804- French empower for life- RCC makes peace with France.
Nationalism
Extreme love/pride in ones country
Napoleons Downfall
Attacks Russia through cold winter with Russia using the ¨ścorched earth tactic. 600,000 went in and over 400,000 soldiers died Austria, Prussia, Russia, G.B unites against France Napoleon exiled to the island of Elba but escapes in 1814. Battle of waterloo Napoleonś army recieved a total defeat by British and Prussian troops. 1815 Was sent to island of St.Helena and dies in 1821 due to stomach cancer.
Congress of Vienna
The big 4- Austria, Russia, Prussia, G.B meet at congress of Vienna (1815) Wanted to stop revolutionary ideas spread by Napoleon but it is too late. The big 4 make a balance of power (maintain peace and try to promote conservative ideas) Keep monarchies - each country can intervene to save kings.
Liberals
-want to change -want reform of gov -want constitutions
Conservatives
-keep things the same -keep gov the same -monarchy