Vulnerable Populations Final

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108 Terms
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what is chronological age
how old a person is in years
what is functional age
what is the person capable of doing (ex: engagement in ADLs)
which is a better indicator of how someone is doing with their aging: chronological or functional
what is the leading cause and most reversible visual impairment in older adults
what is a cataract
clouding of the lens
what are the risk factors for cataracts
increasing age, diabetes, smoking, HTN, corticosteroids
what is the treatment for cataracts
surgical removal of the clouded lens and replacement with an implant
what is one of the leading causes of blindness in america
what is a glaucoma
damage to the optic nerve caused by high pressure in the eye
what is the most common form of glaucoma
primary open-angle glaucoma
what is a primary open angle glaucoma
aqueous humor drains slowly, develops gradually with no symptoms until late-stage
what assessment tools are used for alzheimers
mini-cog, mini-mental state exam, clock drawing test
what is respite care
provides short term reliefs for cargivers
what increased the risk for falls in the elderly
aging, chronic illness, medications
what are potential complications from falls
broken hips, TBI
what factors can influence driver safety in the elderly
impaired senses, medications
what are the 3 types of advanced directives
living will, DNR, durable power of attorney
what is a living will
legal document that allows individuals to specify what kind fo medical treatment they would or would not want if they become incapacitated or had a irreversible terminal illness
what is a DNR order
order stating the individual does not want CPR of they were to stop breathing or have no heartbeat
what is a durable power of attorney
designation of healthcare proxy to make medical decisions should the individual become incapacitated
what is included in the chain of transmission
infectious agent, reservoir, portals of entry/exit, mode of transmission, host susceptibility
what is a reservoir
environment in which pathogen lives and multiples in
what are examples of direct transmission
getting coughed on, unprotected sex, needle sticks
what is indirect transmission
spread of infection through vehicle of transmission outside the host such as fomites or vectors
what is a fomite
inanimate objects that transport microbes
what are examples of fomites
water, doorknob, phone
what is a vector
insect or animal that transmit the microb
what are examples of diseases spread by vectors
zika, rocky mountain spotted fever, enchephalitis
how do we break the chain of transmission
removing a link will prevent infection (controlling agent, removing reservoir, controlling portals)
what is the latent stage of infection
infectious agent has invaded the host and begun replicating (no shedding)
what is the communicable stage of infection
shedding of the agent
what is the incubation stage of infection
time from invasion to when disease symptoms first appear
what is incidence
number of new cases
what is endemic
occurs at consistent and expected level in a geographical area
what is an outbreak
unexpected occurrence of an infectious disease in a geographic area over a limited period
what is an epidemic
large outbreak for an extended period of time
global spread
what is herd immunity
80% of population is vaccinated or immune
how could we control the human reservoir to break the chain on transmission
quarantine individuals during incubation period
how can we control portals of entry and exit to break the chain of transmission
isolate sick people, universal precautions
what is an immunization
process in which active or passive immunity to an infectious agent is induced or amplified
what is a vaccination
administration of vaccine or toxoid to confer active immunity
what is primary vaccine failure
improper storage of vaccines, production error (vaccine ineffective before reaching patient)
what is secondary vaccine failure
body lacks immune response after receiving the vaccine
what is natural immunity
innate resistance to antigen or toxin (born with it)
what is acquired immunity
derived from actual exposure to specific infectious agent or vaccine
what is active immunity
body produces its own antibodies to an antigen from either infection or vaccine
what is passive immunity
temporary resistance that has been donated to the host either through transfusions or placental from mother to baby that lasts as long as the substance remains in the bloodstream
what are intentional injuries most commonly resulting from in rural communities
what is the leading cause of death in America up until age 44
unintentional injury
how does age influence vulnerability and health disparities in rural areas
elderly population is growing, they tend to have lower incomes and be isolated and lack access to care
what is a migrant farm worker
those who migrate to find work
what is a seasonal farm worker
reside permanently in one place and work locally when farm labor is needed
which aggregate has the poorest health in the US
migrant and seasonal farmworkers
what is a common health disparity among farmworkers
chronic respiratory illness
what is a factor leading to health disparity of migrant workers related to access
not many HCP in the area, lack of insurance, fear of deportation, long work hours
what are factors that attribute to homelessness
shortage of affordable housing, income insufficient to meet basic needs, inadequate support services
HUD definition of homeless: category 1- literally homeless
individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence as well as those who resided in a shelter, are exiting an institution, or stayed somewhere not meant for human residence
HUD definition of homeless: category 2- imminent risk of homelessness
individuals who will imminently lose their primary nighttime residence
HUD definition of homelessness: category 3- homeless under other federal statutes
unaccompanied youth and families with children who are defined as homeless under other federal statues but don't otherwise qualify as homeless under this definition
HUD definition of homelessness: category 4- fleeing/attempt to flee domestic violence
individuals fleeing from violence or threatening conditions
what are federally qualified health centers
receive federal grants to fun services to underserved populations, may receive additional funds to provide primary care and substance abuse services to homeless populations
is the homeless population on average younger or older than the general population
is it more common for men or women to be homeless
which race make up the largest proportion of the homeless population
what is a disability
umbrella term covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions
what are developmental disabilities
conditions manifested by limitation before the legal age of adulthood (18)
what is impairment
problem in body function, activity limitation, or participation restriction
what is activity limitation
difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action
what is handicap
a disadvantage resulting from an impairment or disability that prevents fulfillment of an expected role
what is the individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)
ensures free and appropriate public education to children with a disability in the least restrictive setting
what is a service provided under the individuals with disabilities education act
development of individualized education plan (IEP)
what is the role of the school nurse in an IEP
identification and evaluation of students who may be eligible for services
what is the americans with disabilities act (ADA)
prohibits discrimination against peoples with a disabilities and provides equal opportunities in relation to employment, transportation, public services, and telecommunications
what is a qualified individual according to the ADA
person with a physical or mental impairment that limits life activities or body function
what are the requirements of the ADA in regard to a qualified disabled individual applying for a job
must meet the legitimate skill, experience, education, or other requirements of the position; must be able to perform job functions with or without reasonable accommodations
what is the ticket to work and work incentives improvement act
increased access to vocational services and provided methods for retaining health insurance, higher cap to accommodate earnings when progress is made in employment plans but before they reach the level of earning that would terminate benefits
examples of public assistance programs for disabled people
cash assistance, food stamps, subsidized housing, social security (supplemental security income, SSI), and social security disability insurance (SSDI)
what does social security disability insurance do
pays benefits to you and certain members of your family if you are insured, meaning that you have worked long enough and paid social security taxes
what is the goal of public assistance programs
help aged, blind, and disabled people who have little or no income to provide cash to meet basic needs
who funds SSI
general tax revenues
who qualifies for SSI
person with disabilities with limited income and resources
who are SI benefits payable to
adults and children who are disabled or blind
what additional benefits can individuals on SSI or SSDI receive
can those on SSI receive state supplements
yes, up to the states
what funds SSDI
disability trust fund monies (social security taxes)
who qualifies for SSDI
person with a disablity must be insured through federal insurance contributions act (FICA) earnings of self, parents, or spouse
who are SSDI benefits payable to
workers or widowers who are disabled or adults who have been disabled since childhood
do individuals receiving SSDI receive state supplements
what is occupational health nursing practice and professionalism
on site health care professional, coordinates comprehensive and holistic services, follows AAOHN standards and code of ethics
what is the role of the occupational health nurse in regards to professionalism
advocate for workers and uphold professional standards and codes
what are common work related injuries that should be the focus of health and prevention strategies
work related injuries, repetitive motion injuries, homicide, chemical exposure, stress, hearing loss
what services are often mandated by company policy
health services, staffing and operational standards, illness and return to work assessments, medical accommodations, professional education and development
responsibilities of a forensic nurse
assessment and collection of evidence, witness testimony in court
what is a sexual assault nurse examiner
collects evidence through a thorough exam and history, of a crime and testifies as a witness in trial, provides referrals and resources for crisis and support care
what is the responsibility of a legal nurse consultant
provides assistance in legal system, reviews and interprets medical charts to provide objective opinions on standards of care
what is the purpose of home health services
providing nursing care in the patients home and identifying refferals
how can the nurse care for the patients primary caregiver
assess physical and mental health, reassure them that they can no do anything "wrong" and their decisions wont directly cause the death of their loved one
what should a nurse do when preparing for a home visit
review referral form, contact the client to establish trusting relationship and get consent to conduct home visit
what should a nurse do when conducting a home visit
observe environment on drive to clients home and the home itself, ask general questions about client and family, focus on health and safety of patients
what should a nurse do post-home visit
document all interventions, patient condition, and care plan, provide family and caregivers with instructions, set dates for next visit
what is hospice care
improves the quality of life for those with terminal illnesses by relieving suffering and supporting the patient and family through the dying process when the goal is no longer curing the illness
when is a patient started on hospice care
terminally ill with life expectancy of 6 months or less
what is palliative care
provides patient relief from pain and other symptoms of illness regardless of the diagnosis or stage of the disease, aims to improve quality of life and comfort along side other treatments that may be curative
how should schools promote injury prevention
start teaching children early with age appropriate topics such as wearing helmets, hydration, pool safety, sports safety
where do most childhood injuries occur
playgrounds, athletic fields, gymnasiums
what are the most common type of injuries for school aged childern