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Practice Test

52 Terms
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Philo and Sophia
Philosophy came from the Greek words ___ and ___
to love
The Greek word "Philo" means ___
The Greek word "Sophia" means ____
____ is about critical and rational thinking.
Ultimate nature of things
What does philosophy attempt to discover?
Justification of one's belief and reflections of one's experiences
Philosophy is also concerned with____
The branch of philosophy that deals with knowledge, its nature and possibility.
This deals with the scope and limits of knowledge, and the process of acquiring it.
The study of the ultimate reality
This is an inquiry that leads into the understanding of the reality beyond or behind nature, or sensory experience
This deals with the most fundamental mental concept such as God, existence, reality, substance, etc.
The science of reasoning
This studies the proper methods of thinking and reasoning.
Ethics / Moral Philosophy
A rational inquiry into the standards of right and wrong, good and evil
Ethics / Moral Philosophy
Answers the question “how ought we to live?”
Ethics (ethos)
The standards of “good and bad” distinguished by a certain community or social setting
refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions
Set of rules for people to follow
Ethical codes
____ does not have to be moral
Something that’s personal and normative
refer to an individual's own principles regarding right and wrong
refers to universal norms of right and wrong conduct that are held to obligate all persons
the philosophical study of morality
practical discipline
Ethics is therefore, above all, a ______
____ is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason—that is, to do what there are the best reasons for doing – while giving equal weight to the interest of each individual affected by one’s decision
refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving
Moral codes
series of agreements to which a person has subscribed to guarantee the survival of a group
true/ false: Conceptions of right and wrong differ from culture to culture
1. Different societies have different moral codes. 2. The moral code of a society determines what is right within that society; that is, if the moral code of a society says that a certain action is right, then that action is right, at least within that society. 3. There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one society’s code as better than another’s. There are no moral truths that hold for all people at all times. 4. The moral code of our own society has no special status; it is but one among many. 5. It is arrogant of us to judge other cultures. We should always be tolerant of them.
What are the Claims of Cultural Relativists?
“socially approved” by the majority in a given culture
Cultural relativism holds that “good” means ___
product of culture
Cultural relativists see morality as a ______
Subjectivism (SB
_______ says that moral judgments describe how we feel
To call something “good” is to say that we have a ____ feeling toward it.
Simple Subjectivism
1st stage of Subjectivism
2nd stage of Subjectivism
Simple Subjectivism
When a person says that something is morally good or bad, this means that he or she approves of that thing, or disapproves of it, and nothing more
According to ______, moral language is not fact-stating language; it is not used to convey information or to make reports. It is used, first, as a means of influencing people’s behavior.
____ gives a weak basis for dealing with practical areas like racism and moral education.
X is good means God desires X
moral judgments describe God’s will
____ is defended as a Biblical teaching, as a consequence of belief in God (who is the source of all basic laws), and as the only plausible source of objectively binding duties
Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg
____ studied how children of different ages determine what was right and wrong
____ focused on the reason behind moral decision of the individual
Morality is controlled externally, rules are imposed and to be conformed to avoid punishment
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment
Individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves. Individuals obey to avoid punishment
Stage 2: Self-interest Oriented
Individuals focus still on consequences of having rewards or personal satisfaction. (What is in it for me?)
Conformity to social rules becomes important to the individual. Individuals focus on interpersonal relationship and social system.
Stage 3: Good boy/girl attitude
Behaviour is determined by social approval. The individual wants to keep approval of others by being a “good person.”
Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
Individuals consider society when making moral judgments. Individuals follow rules to maintain social order.
Individual's own perspective may take precedence over society's view; Individuals may disobey rules inconsistent with their own principles
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Individuals view law to be flexible. They think that if the law is inconsistent with individual rights and the interest of the majority, it has to be changed.
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws.