The genetic makeup of a cell or organism (Allele- Hh or Gg or HHGgKk these would be the genotype)
An individuals observable characteristics (height, eye color, hair color)
the genetic difference that exist among individuals in a population at a particular point in time.
An individual is homozygous when both alleles are the same. (ie HH or GG or HHGGKK)
An individual is heterozygous when the alleles are different. (ie Hh or Gg or HhGhKk)
A particular form of a gene
Segregation of Alleles
the separation of allele pairs (different traits of the same gene) during meiosis so that they can transfer specifically to separate gametes.
a specific characteristic of an individual
The patterns of in heritance of any genes not on a sex chromosome. These are the standard patterns of inheritance.
A species that is used for research because it is practical to work with and the conclusions drawn can be applied to many other species.
Combining two different varieties(Mendel did this with pea plants that different in phenotype for one or more trait.
True breeding(pure line)
These lines are homozygous for a trait. (ie HH or GG or KK)
An inherited characteristic that appears in an offspring if it is contributed from a parent through a dominant allele.(ie if you receive H from dad h from mom you will phenotypically present H)
A tool that helps to show all possible allelic combinations of gametes in a cross of parents with known genotypes
Principals of Segregation
Individuals inherit two copies of each gene one from mom and one from dad and when individual form reproductive cells the two copies equally separate in the eggs and sperm (monohybrid cross) .
Principals of independent assortment.
The two copies of each gene segregate into gametes independently of the two copies of another gene (dihybrid cross).
off spring has a sex-dependent inheritance patterns
Common Phenotype found in individuals
Individuals with an unusual phenotype due to mutations.
shows relationships between family members and indicates which individuals have certain genetic pathogenic variants, traits, and diseases.
Some who present the Dominate phenotype of a trait but carries the recessive allele, making the heterozygous. Denoted by a half shaded box in a pedigree
Describes an individual who has only one member of Chromosome pair or chromosome segment rather than the usual two. Hemizygosity is often used to describe X-linked genes in males who have only one X chromosome.
All the individuals of a species that live and reproduce in a certain place at the same time
the study of how and why the number of individuals in a population changes over time and space
Total number of all individuals of all ages present in a population
geographic distribution of a population
Characteristics of the physical environment (ie temperature, altitude)
Due to the presences if other species( competition, food)
the number of individuals per unit area
Uniform population density
Negative interaction occur among individuals that space them out individually
Random population density
the position of each individual in independent of the others
Clumped Population Density
The quality of the habitat is patch or the organisms are social
number of individuals of each age
Number of individuals of each age likely to survive to the following year
Age Specific fecundity
Avg number of female offspring produced by a female of each age
Avg time between a mothers first offspring and the first off spring of her daughter
Type 1 Survivorship Curve
Survivor ship is high at young age and drops quickly with old age (Humans)
Type 2 Survivorship Curve
Individuals have a similar chance of dying each year of there life (Birds)
Type 3 Survivorship Curve
High mortality at young age and high survivorship once adulthood is reached ( insects, plants)
This describes how an individual allocates resources to grow, reproduce, and do activates, structures related to survival.
Species that grow quick, reach sexual maturity at young age , and produce many seeds/offspring. "live fast die young"
Grow slow, invest resources in trait that reduce damage from enemies and increase their own ability to compete in their environment
Per- capita rate of increase
Births - Deaths = r
r= the rate of increase in a population
Population is growing, more births that deaths
Population is not changing in size births = deaths
Population is shrinking More deaths than births
a populations growth rate increases rapidly in the early stage and slows down as N approaches K (carrying capacity) and r will eventually become 0
A growth in which the rate is proportional to the increasing number or size in an exponential
Density independent factors
not influenced by a species population size. All species populations in the same ecosystem will be similarly affected, regardless of population size. Factors include: weather, climate and natural disasters. (abiotic)
Density Dependent Factors
any force that affects the size of a population of living things in response to the density of the population usually biotic (competition for food and water)
The total variation of life along all levels of the biological hierarchy
A change in allele frequency in a population due to chance
Sum of all the alleles in a population
Allele frequency Equation
The transfer of genetic material from one population to another. (usually leads to equalizing of populations)
Represents the possibility of a gene variant in a population
Represents the possibility of a genotype variant in a population
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
Assumptions of hardy Weinberg equilibrium
1. No random mating
2. No Natural selection
3. No genetic drift
4. No gene flow
5. No mutations
A feature that has become common in a population through natural selection because it provides some improved function increasing fitness
The process through which populations of living organisms adapt and change.
Occurs when individuals with traits on one side of the mean in their population survive better or reproduce more than those on the other.
A type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value.
Occurs when individuals of intermediate phenotype are less fit than those of both higher and lower phenotype, such that extremes are favored.
members of one sex (usually females) choose members of the opposite sex. (leads to showy males to get females attention)
Where members of the same sex compete with one other for members of the opposite sex.
Females who choose which males to mate with, how long to mate, and even whose sperm will fertilize her eggs
Males compete for access to females, the amount of time spent mating with females, and even whose sperm gets to fertilize her eggs.
The reduction in genomic variability that occurs when a small group of individuals becomes separated from a larger population.
An extreme example of genetic drift that happens when the size of a population is severely reduced. Events like natural disasters, killing most individuals and leaving behind a small, random assortment of survivors.