# Bio A - Unit 1 Cumulative - Study Guide

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Independent Variable

The variable that you change in an experiment ex. how much water the plant gets

Dependent Variable

The factor that you measure; that changes based on the independent variable ex. how tall the plant grows

Experimental Group

The group in which the independent variable is altered ex group that gets more water

Control Group

The group in which nothing is changed ex. the group that gets a normal amount of water

Constants

All the variables that you don't change exs. soil, type of plant, how much sun, etc

Parts of a graph

X axis (independent variable)Y axis (dependent variable) Title (says what the graph is about)Titles for the axis (with measurements where appropriate) KeyLegend (states obvious, does not interpret data)

Trendline (Line-of-best-fit)

Draw a circle around all the lines then draw a line with a ruler that divides the circle in half (ignore outliers). This is the average of the data.

Solute

Is the thing that the solvent is attracted to (like salt).

Solvent

Would be the water. Breaks apart the solute.

Covalent Bonds

Shares valance electors (outer shell). Sharing is caring.

Ionic Bonds

Stealing valence electrons but it benefits both. Results in one atom being positively charged and one atom being negatively charged. Two then attracted to each other like magnets.

Polar

Means there's uneven sharing of electrons. Example, water as the oxygen hogs the electrons. One end is electropositive and one end is electronegative. (note polar things dissolve other polar things)

Nonpolar

Means they're shared evenly. (note that nonpolar dissolve other nonpolar things)

Dehydration Synthesis

H2O is removed from the middle of the molecule, splitting it into two separate parts. Joins the two together at the middle makes a MEGA MOLECULE

Hydrolysis

To "lys" is to slice! Water is added from the outside and splits apart the molecule

Passive transport

Doesn't require energy (ATP). Follows the concentration gradient (high to low)

Simple Diffusion

Type of passive transport. Can be done by small, nonpolar molecules (water is the exception). Slips through the phospholipid bilayer to the other side

Facilitated Diffusion

Type of passive transport. Works on larger, charged, or polar molecules. Uses proteins (like channel proteins) to pass through the bilayer

Osmosis

Type of passive transport. Diffusion for water.

Hypertonic

A solution compared to another has more solute than solvent than the other one (more salt than water AKA it is more concentrated)

Hypotonic

A solution compared to another has more solvent than solute than the other one (more water than salt AKA it is less concentrated)

Isotonic

Equal amounts of something (water, salt, sugar, etc.). Equilibrium has been reached

Active Transport

Requires energy (ATP). Moves against the concentration gradient (low to high) if the cell needs it. For very big molecules that cannot do any passive transport

Protein pump (Has to do with active transport)

Protein is activated by ATP. ATP transforms to ADP. Opens up pathway, sucks molecules through

Endocytosis (Has to do with active transport)

They come in a large group, are enclosed by the membrane.Membrane breaks off when a circle is moved inside, forming a vacuole. Things are transported into the cell. For very big molecules

Exocytosis (has to do with active transport)

Things (like waste or value resources) are transported out of the cell. Vacuole reaches membrane, merges with it.Forces things out (or they stay in a vacuole still but not one connected to the membrane)

Eukaryotic (type of cell)

Has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

Eukaryotic Animal (type of cell)

Has only cell membrane. All membrane-bound organelles except cell wall and chloroplast. Smaller vacuoles

Eukaryotic Plant (type of cell)

Has cell membrane and cell wall. Chloroplasts with chlorophyll (photosynthesis). Large central vacuole

Prokaryotic (type of cell)

No nucleus. Are often bacteria. Has ribosomes, free floating DNA, cell membrane and wall, and cytoplasm

Nucleus

stores DNA

Nucleolus

Ribosome synthesis (makes mRNA into proteins)

Nuclear envelope (nuclear pores)

surrounds nucleus, controls what gets in or out of it

Rough ER

Has ribosomes, transports proteins.

Ribosomes

polypeptide chain synthesis. can be free floating.

Smooth ER

no ribosomes, lipid synthesis (creates lipids)

Golgi apparatus

Folds polypeptide chain into a protein, processes

Vacuole

storage

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell. Makes ATP

Cell membrane

controls what gets in or out of the cell (is semi-permeable)

Cell wall

stops plant cells from bursting

pH, acids and bases

Acidic has a pH of 0-6 (0 is the most acidic)7 has a neutral pH (water)Bases have a pH of 8-14 (14 is the most basic)

Buffers

Help maintain a constant pH level and homeostasis. (Buffers resist changes in pH). If the solution is too acidic, it has too many H+, and the buffer will take some in. If the solution is too basic, it doesn't have enough H+ and the buffer will release some

Feedback Loops

Helps Maintain homeostasis. Sensor detects a change in the body. The effector than responds to the change accordingly(Think a heater that warms the house when too cold and cools it when too warm)

asexual reproduction

Asexual is a genetic clone. Only requires one parent ("Copy machine")

sexual reproduction

Sexual requires two parents (Genetic diversity)

Mitosis

4 stages-Prophase Copies of chromosomes are formed-Metaphase Nuclear membrane disintegrates. Spindles attach to chromosomes-Anaphase Spindles pull chromosomes apart so there are 8, 2 pairs of 4-Telophase Nuclear membranes reform around the pairs, two nuclei in one cell Technically not a part of mitosis but:-Cytokinesis The cell actually splits into two smaller versions of itself

Interphase

G1 Growth phaseS DNA ReplicationG2 Second growth phase, mutation/issue check

Lipids

Found in cell membrane. Makes up the cell membrane, provides pigment, long term energy, keeps us warm

Proteins

Found in ribosomes. Builds Muscles and Cells, Acts as enzymes, Biological Catalyst, cellular work, helps run the body

Carbs

Found surrounding the membrane. Provides structure and short term energy for the body

Nucleic Acids

Found in RNA and DNA. Provides genetic codes, has instructions to make proteins, Makes up DNA+RNA

Endomembrane System

• Starts in the Nucleus, ribosomes created in the nucleolus

• DNA gets copied into RNA, the RNA leaves through the nuclear pores in the nuclear envelope

• Travels through the rough ER, attaches to a ribosome

• Ribosome reads the instructions, creates a polypeptide chain

• Polypeptide chain travels to the Golgi Apparatus and is folded into a protein

• Leaves (or stays) in the cell via a vesicle via exocytosis

Cancer

apoptosis

Cell has mutations but keeps dividing, not self destructed (apoptosis). Becomes cancer. It divides at abnormally high rates, causing it to grow fast. When it reaches the bloodstream, it can travel anywhere in the body.

apoptosis

when the cell self destructs due to a mutation that was detected

Lysosomes

Breaks apart things (to “lys” is to slice!!!)