Amsco Chapter 3 ID's (Allison R)

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the first great Greek historian; wrote The Histories
The Histories
Records of the Persian Wars.
a Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
an epic written by Homer that described the FINAL YEAR of the TROJAN WAY fought between Troy and Greece. Tells tales of WARRIORS BATTLING for GLORY.
an epic written by Homer that details the adventures of Odysseus
a greek philosopher a student of Socrates opened the Academy; wrote dialogues, and believed that "philosopher kings" should make decisions for the people; opened a school called "ACADEMY." Wrote "THE REPUBLIC," and "THE ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE." Created Plato Theory where the physical world is only a reflection of a perfect reality.
The Republic
a work by Plato that describes an ideal society ruled by a government that rested upon a concept of justice and ethical values
a student of Plato; wrote on a wide range of topics such as ethics, logic, and literature
the earliest surviving work of literary criticism in the Western world
The religious book of Zoroastrians that contains a collection of sacred texts
the most prolific author of comedies; wrote Lysistrata and The Birds
The Birds
Comedy by ARISTOPHANES, a play about Pisthetaerus who convinces the worlds birds to create a new city in the sky. Theme: Desire for Power.
Written by ARISTOPHANES, play about a women's mission to end the Peloponnesian War. Convinces the women of Greece to make men choose between going to war or having sex with them. Theme: Peace and Unity.
Father of tragedy (tragedian). Was a major playwright (fifth century BCE).
Prometheus Bound
Ancient Greek tragedy, attributed to Aeschylus ; Tells the tale of how Prometheus stole fire from Zeus, gives it to humans, and suffers eternal punishment. Theme: Resisting Tyranny.
Composed by AESCHYLUS. Tale of Prince of Troy, Paris, stealing Agamemnon's wife, Helen, sparking the 10-year long Trojan War. Theme: Revenge.
a playwright who wrote tragedies about greek mythology such as The Trojan Women
The Trojan Women
a play by Euripides that describes how Athenians slaughtered people they captured in the Trojan War
sorceress or enchantress; from Medea who helped Jason and the Argonauts capture the Golden Fleece; known for her revenge against Jason when he spurned her for the princess of Corinth
a playwright who used the myths of the gods as convenient literary devices for his plays
a tragic king of Thebes who unknowingly killed his father Laius and married his mother Jocasta
a great temple in Athens that had been destroyed in war with Persia; rebuilt under Pericles' rule; Sits atop the Acropolis in Athens. Greatest example of Greek ARCHITECTURE with a focus on SYMMETRY.
daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta; Composed by SOPHOCLES. King Creon orders that the bodies of criminals who tried to stage a coup to not be buried. However, Antigone tries to give her brother a proper burial. Theme: Law vs Morality.
the capital of the Achaemenid Empire
Knossos Palace
had indoor plumbing; the concept spread when the Minoans spread (and the book doesn't really say anything more)
a Greek thinker who emphasized continually asking questions
Socratic Method
continually asking questions to systematically clarify another person's ideas and to identify the core of them
a school opened by Plato; taught students to question the nature of ideas
Golden Mean
emphasis on moderation, supported by Aristotle
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem
Father of geometry
Father of medicine; Created "Hippocratic Oath."
the science of the formal principle of reasoning
trusting what one learns from observation and evidence of the senses rather than emphasizing intuition or religious beliefs
combining ideas from different sources
One of the first monotheistic religions, particularly one with a wide following. It was central to the political and religious culture of ancient Persia.
A Persian prophet, traditionally dated to the sixth or seventh century B.C.E. (but perhaps much older) who founded Zoroastrianism.
A water management system that originated in Perisa thousands of years ago. It provided water to people even in hilly, desert, hot, and arid areas (like Iran).
Cyrus the Great
The FIRST LEADER of the Persian Empire. Under his rule, Persia conquered MESOPOTAMIA and INDUS VALLEY.
Delian League
LEAGUE of Greek CITY-STATES, LED by ATHENS, formed to defend Greece AGAINST the PERSIANS. A FRONT for the Athens EMPIRE, CAUSING the Peloponnesian War.
the son of Cyrus the Great; established the Achaemenid Empire, united Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India
Darius I
a ruler of the Achaemenid Empire; divided the empire into provinces, formed a bureaucracy, and constructed many public works projects
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.; , and built the "Gateway of Xerxes" at the entrance of Persepolis. Led Persians through the PERSIAN WARS, ending in defeat. Eventually, he became LESS TOLERANT to non-Persians in the empire.
Peloponnesian League
LEAGUE of Greek city-states, led by SPARTA. REVOLTED against Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
Philip II
Macedonian king who sought to unite Greece under his banner until his death or murder. He was succeeded by his son Alexander.
Alexander the Great
Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. SON of Philip II, during his 13-year campaign, he CONQUERED PERSIA (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley). SPREAD GREEK CULTURE among the lands he conquered. Founded the great city of Alexandria.
Athenian reformers of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt, limited the amount a person could own
RULED Athens during its Golden Age. He built the PARTHENON, created a COUNCIL of 500, and developed The People's COURTS. LED Athens into the Peloponnesian Wars and died to plague.
One of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; was founded in Egypt; After Alexander the Great's death, there was a power struggle, resulting in the Ptolemy family RULING OVER EGYPT. Built the GREAT LIBRARY at Alexandria. WEALTHIEST of Hellenistic Empires.
Ancient Greek city- states; Each had their own ACROPOLIS (citadel) and AGORA (assembly area).
King (or queen) rules the state
Nobles rule the state
A few wealthy landowners and merchants rule
leaders who seized power with the people's support
all citizens participate in government
Direct Democracy
a government in which all citizens can vote directly on laws and other issues in a large assembly
Representative Democracy
a government in which citizens elect leaders to represent them and give those leaders power to make make laws and govern
An island in the Aegean Sea; home to the Minoans and Knossos
A beautiful city on Crete, built by the Minoans; for a while the wealthiest city on the Aegean Sea
Minoan Civilization
Centered on Crete; grew rich from trade, but little agriculture; no writing from it has been deciphered
Composite, Blew up entire Mediterranean island, might be responsible for myth of Atlantis
First Greek State from 1600 BC; Early Mediterranean city on the mainland of Greece. TRADED frequently WITH the MINOANS.
Chief Greek COLONY on the island of SICILY. EAST coast
the first pitched battle of the first Punic War and the first large
Persian Wars
Series of wars between Greek states and Persia, particularly two invasions of Greece by Persia (490, 480–479)
Greek city which had the FIRAT PERSIAN ATTACK on Greece. Outnumbered ATHENIAN army DEFEATED the PERSIAN forces of Darius. Athens was victorious and a messenger was sent to run the 26 miles back to the city with the news.
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle in which Spartan king Leonidas and his army of 300 Spartans and other Greeks refused to surrender to the numerically superior Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae; they were annihilated to the man but allowed the other Greek forces to prepare for the Persian invasion.
Battle of Salamis
The battle that effectively ended the Persian War. The Greek fleet, although vastly outnumbered, defeated the Persian fleet. This helped end the Persian war, freeing Greece. DECISIVE NAVAL BATTLE where Athenians cut of the Persian army's food supply.
Peloponnesian War
war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.)
a native or inhabitant of ancient or modern Persia (or Iran), or a person of Persian descent.
Achaemenid Empire
First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC
The Greek rulers of the eastern part of Alexander's empire. Their territory included Palestine; the SECOND MAIN DYNASTY. RULED PERSIA AFTER ITS FALL. Heavily encouraged Greeks and Macedonians to settle there, SPREADING GREEK CULTURE. Mainly Mesopotamia.
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 B.C.E. and 226 C.E; THIRD MAIN DYNASTY OF PERSIANS. Had CAPITAL city of CTESIPHON, used SATRAP system of governing. Prevented Roman Empire from marching beyond, eventually DEFEATED BY SASSANIDS.
A civilization that replaced the Parthians. Right when they were emerging, Rome entered a civil war. Feeling threatened, Valerian attacked them in hopes of uniting Rome. When he lost, the eastern border became even weaker
a powerful polis; known for its political and intellectual achievements
a powerful polis; known for developing a society organized around producing a powerful military
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
Hellenist Period
Culture associated with spread of Greek influence because of Macedonian conquests; Seen as combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
Infantry members recruited by poleis to defend their lands
top officials in democratic Athenian government
Slaves in Sparta
a ruler of a province who was responsible to the emperor, not to local leaders
people who inherited social rank, title, and land (highest class in society)
people who buy and sell goods
Spartan Women
ran households with greater freedom than other Greek women; received education, owned property, and weren't secluded
Combination inns and markets for people traveling the Royal Road by camel caravan
Common Currency
A form of money that was accepted across the Persian Empire; made trade simpler
Royal Road
Spanned 1500 miles across the Persian Empire; built by Darius, encouraged trade