practiced adult baptism; believed in predestination.
founded from the Book of Common Prayers in 1549; contains both Protestant and Roman Catholic ideas.
derives from Portuguese word for irregularity in a pearl; made in the time of the reformation to educate the illiterate about religious ideas.
founded by John Calvin, who agreed with Lutheranism except for ideas like consubstantiation (God’s presence in the bread and wine).
the Protestant practice of clergy being allowed to marry. (Catholics couldn’t)
Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation)
The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; a new Catholic religious sense was created.
Holy Communion or Lord’s Supper
Catholic theologian who influenced Luther’s ideas of the Reformation.
learning something new; what the Protestants said they went through. A time period where people focused more on science and math.
Luther’s main belief that a person is only saved by faith and faith alone. Sola Fide
French Edict of Nantes
gave Calvin Protestants (Huguenots) rights to the nation.
Huguenots followed John Calvin’s beliefs, saying that the knowledge of God is irrelevant to the knowledge of humans.
German Peasants’ Revolt
when Germany was split into different states, the peasants were not being treated well so they started a war.
an international center of Reformed doctrine; for who did not accept the Trinity
Gustavus Adolphus the king of Sweden, who was nicknamed the “Lion of the North'' for his intense and strong character, was concerned about the emperor’s growing power, and decided to raise an army to gain a strong foothold in Europe to help counter Ferdinand’s II power.
Also spelled Habsburgs, they were a ruling German dynasty from 1282 until 1918.They also controlled Hungary and Bohemia (1526–1918) and ruled Spain and the Spanish empire for almost two centuries (1504–06, 1516–1700).
Had 6 wives, and led England away form the Catholic church after a disagreement with the pope about divorcing his wife Catherine of Aragon. This caused the formation of the Anglican church.
established the society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits.
The founder of Calvinism, Frenchman trained as a priest as lawyer, his training as a lawyer informed how he approached religion, with a methodical debunking of others ideas.
a group of young men who focus on educating the rich and poor people on Catholicism.
religion introduced by Martin Luther; the belief that salvation comes from faith not by works and that authority comes from scripture, sola scriptura. Believed in consubstantiation.
a religious way of life where the people devote themselves to spiritual work.
emerged during the late Renaissance as a shift AWAY from the ordered, balanced, symmetric, proportional, harmonious styles of the High Renaissance.
German theologian who initiated the Protestant Reformation by posting the 95 Theses. His intention was not to reform society. He was excommunicated by Pope Leo X for his non-Catholic ideas but was protected by Fredrick of Saxony.
controlled by Spain until the corruption of the Catholic church and the north became Protestant and the south was Catholic.
the belief that God foresees and wills from all eternity that only some people will be saved; Calvin’s most important
Pope Leo X
The one who excommunicated Martin Luther and authorized the sale of indulgences
Roman Catholic Church
a group of states under the Catholic Church. Each state acted as its own country but they were all beneath the papacy
Roman Catholic Council of Trent
Led by Pope Paul III, where the Papal court met to discuss the problems in the Catholic Church. Decided that salvation came to humans through faith and good works combined, the 7 sacraments were reaffirmed, transubstantiation was reaffirmed, Scripture and traditions are places as an equal authority, celibacy of the clergy was upheld, the existence of purgatory reaffirmed, and a theory of how indulgences should be spread made, and reaffirmed what were pious actions. They agreed to dismount pluralism and add required seminary was required.
Thomas More is an important Christian Humanist, he wrote about a utopian society that featured religious tolerance, gender equality, no private property, and humanistic education. This was his ideal world.
Thirty Years’ War
(1618-1648) Both a German civil and an international war. Fought over religion. Had 4 phases, Bohemian (1618-1625), Danish. (1625-1629), Swedish (1630-1635), and Swedish-French (1635-1648).
Usury is an unusually high interest rate or the lending of money at an unusually high interest rate.
A French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher. Voltaire is remembered as a crusader against tyranny and bigotry and is noted for his wit, satire, and critical capacity. Voltaire sought primarily to undermine the general legitimacy of organized religion.
People who have consulted with the devil and now preform what he tells them to do. Often unmarried and widowed women were accused.