Biology and Society Final Exam

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Which species concept defines a species as organisms that share a set of unique physical characteristics not found on other groups of organisms?
Morphological species
primary classification group with most closely related members
broader group; capitalized first part of the name
Species (in a name)
second part of the name
additional name applied to more specific groups
The Biological species concept
a group of individuals that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Species are reproductively isolated
they cannot produce fertile offspring with members of other species
Gene pool
sum total of the alleles found in all individuals of a species
Gene flow
transfer of genetic material (alleles) from one population to another
prevents fertilization from occurring
fertilization occurs but hybrid cannot reproduce
life offspring produced by mating between two different species; often sterile
hybrid of horse and donkey
the evolution of one or more species from an ancestral from
Three steps for a new species
Isolation of gene pools of populations of the species Evolutionary changes in gene pools of populations Evolution of reproductive isolation between populations
small population becomes isolated in location far from main population
Allopatric populations
isolated from each other by distance or a geologic barrier (allo= “different”)
Sympatric populations
separate gene pools despite living near each other (sym-= “together”)
slow accumulation of small changes over long period of time (assumed by darwin)
Punctuated equilibrium
sudden, dramatic changes followed by long periods of little change
Biological race
populations of one species that have diverged from each other as a result of isolation of gene pools
Biologists may use genealogical species concept
organisms able to interbreed, descended from a common ancestor, and representing independent evolutionary lineage
The morphological species concept
a group of individuals with some reliable physical characteristics distinguishing them from all other species
more practical definition for paleontologists
scientists who study fossils
Homo erectus
immediate predecessor of homo sapiens
Human race
not independent evolutionary groups
Covergent evolution
unrelated organisms resemble each other due to similar environmental factors
Genetic drift
change in allele frequency that occurs due to chance (it is random)
A volcano eruption kills most of a squirrel population, the surviving squirrels have a different gene pool from the original population. What type of genetic drift did this?
Bottleneck effect
Founder Effect
genetic differences resulting when a small sample of a larger group begins a new population
Bottleneck Effect
variant of effect; a small number survives after disaster wipes out most of the population
Sexual selection
when a trait influences the likelihood of mating
Assortative mating
preference to mate with someone like self
Communicable or transmissible diseases
transmitted from one individual to another
infectious agents
invade tissues and induce damage
disease affecting many people within a region
disease that is prevalent over a whole country or the world
disease-causing organisms
Which statement about viruses is incorrect?
Viruses are prokaryotes
Contagious pathogen
spreads from one organism to another
tiny single cell prokaryotes
bacterial secretions that also cause symptoms
medications to routinely treat bacterial infections
packers of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (capsid)
Herd immunity
indirect way to provide protection to individuals who cannot be vaccinated (pregnant women, infants, immunocompromised)
Skin and Mucous membranes are important components of the nonspecific first part of defense.
the immune system
protects against infection
first line of defense
nonspecific external defense
physical barrier, sheds, takes pathogens with it
Mucous membranes
secrete mucus, line respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts
First line of defense examples
ekin, mucous membranes, digestive secretions, vomiting
Second line of defense
nonspecific internal defense
white blood cells that engulf and digest all invaders indiscriminately
one type of phagocytic white cell
Second line of defense
nonspecific internal defense
response to tissue injury
body temp above 97-99 degrees fahrenheit
produces by virus infected cells
complement system
enhances ability to fight off invaders
Second line of defense examples
interferons, complement system, fever, inflammation, phagocytes, macrophages
Which body structure secretes antibodies?
B cells
Third line of defense:
specific defense, used if pathogen gets through nonspecific defenses, made of white blood cells
B and T cells display specificity:
they recognize specific antigens
B and T cells produce antigen receptors
proteins that fit perfectly to antigens
B cells
lymphocytes that make antibodies
proteins that identify and neutralize pathogens
T cells
lymphocytes that directly attack invaders, respond to body cells gone awry, fungi, cancer
Anticipating infection
ability of lymphocytes response to specific antigen, begins before birth
Immune response
ability to respond to infection
Cell mediated immunity
involves T cells rather than antibodies. t cells rapidly divide, produces memory cells
Memory cells
help body responds quickly to pathogen in future
Antibody mediated immunity
secreted antibodies attack pathogens; provided by b cells,b cell copies itself, making a clonal population of identical memory cells, these memory cells fight infection by secreting antibodies
Inactivation of the infectious agent:
occurs when antibodies encounter a pathogen matching the variable region
take advantage of long term protection from antibody producing memory cells
disease caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis -2 billion people carry TB -new infection rate 1 per second -causes 2 million deaths per year,Symptoms: cough that produces blood, fever, fatigue, long relentless wasting, nodules in lungs,1940s, antibiotics revolutionized TB treatment, then in 1980s antibiotic resistant TB increased, now 500,000 cases every year of multidrug resistant TB
Many humans would have to die for humans to develop resistance to the bacteria that causes tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis fits darwin's observations
Organisms in populations vary, bacterial variants of M. tuberculosis that resist antibiotics exist The variation among organisms can be passed onto offspring. The genes for antibiotic resistance are passed to other bacteria More organisms are produced than survive. Antibiotics eliminate most of the bacteria in the infected individual An organism's survival is not random, bacteria with an antibiotic resistance are more likely to survive and reproduce
How can we stop drug resistance?
Combination drug therapy (drug cocktail), different drugs kill variants that have resistance to different compounds, prevents survival of organisms with resistance
study of the interactions among organisms, as well as between organisms and their environment
all the individuals of a species in a given area
Population structure
characteristics of a population, distribution and abundance
the spacing of individuals
the density of individuals
Population size
estimated by population ecologists (and others)
Direct counting
individuals are counted or surveyed, e.g. U.S. census
Mark-recapture method
Estimated the size of more mobile or inconspicuous species , mark and release all animals found, later catch another group in same area and estimate population using percent marked in second catch
Population dispersion
how organisms are distributed in space -Clumped distribution -Uniform distribution -Random distribution
On a global scale, what type of population distribution do humans show?
clumped distribution
Clumped Distribution
-high densities in resource rich areas -low densities elsewhere - ex. plants that require certain soil conditions
Uniform Distribution
-spacing between individuals tends to be equal -species with this pattern are often territorial -ex. Nesting penguins
Random Distribution
-shown by nonsocial species with ability to tolerate wide range of conditions -also occurs where resources are distributed evenly or randomly -ex. Plants with windblown seeds
Exponential growth
growth that occurs in proportion to the current total -has a j shaped curve -occurs under ideal growth conditions -density dependent
density dependent
growth is not limited by population density or resource availability
super exponential growth
faster than exponential growth) ex. human population
Growth rate
birth rate-death rate
birth rate
the number of births as a percentage of the population birth rate = 17.7/1000= 0/01700=1.77%
Current growth rate
Demographic transition
the period when a society’s population shifts from high birth and death rate to low birth and death rates, usually happens during industrialization
Pre industrial revolution
high births and death rates, after death rates decrease, birth rates decrease
short transition
low growth -countries with industrial economies and high individual incomes
Long transition
high growth -countries early in process of industrialization, low individual incomes
Which statement concerning a population at carrying capacity is not true?
The graph of this population’s growth is exponential.
Carrying capacity
the maximum population that can be supported indefinitely in a given environment, populations may grown exponentially at first, eventually limited by environmental resources
Logistic growth
pattern of grown seen in populations limited by environmental resources, graph is s shaped
density dependent
growth limited by population size and resource availability ,Population eventually reaches carrying capacity
Density dependent factors
population-limiting factors that increase with population size, ex. limited food supply
Density independent factors
Influence population growth rates regardless of population density
Signs that a population is not near carrying capacity
decreased death rates despite rapid population increases, indicates people don’t run out of resources, declining birth rate, due to choice of having fewer children
estimated proportion of earth's resources used by humans
used net primary productivity (NPP): plant growth (also a measure of total calories available from plants to support consumers)
Signs that the population is near carrying capacity
NPP estimates may be too high, other resources (besides food) sustain populations, clean water, clean air, energy for heating, producing food, preserving food, resource uses produce pollutants, reliance on non-renewable resources
Population crash
steep decline in numbers, may result if population grows larger than carrying capacity of environment
Population cycle
repeated periods of rapid growth and overshooting carrying capacity, followed by dramatic crashes, “booms” and “busts”
Demographic momentum
time lag between when humans reduce birth rates and when population growth begins to slow
Population pyramid
visual representation of individuals in age groups for each sex of a population
Wide base
growing high demographic momentum and population
Column base
stable low demographic momentum and population
Narrow base
shrinking no demographic momentum and population
Cultural carrying capacity
quality of life issues, wild, undisturbed places, presence of nonhuman species that nurture wonder and discovery, creating and enjoying music, art, and literature
Can forests move?
Only 4% of world population, the U.S. accounts for __% of carbon dioxide emissions
What is the biggest cause of carbon dioxide emissons?
Sea levels rising
melting of greenland and antarctic ice sheets, thermal expansion of ocean water as it warms, melting of ocean glaciers
Oceans are acidifying
Atmospheric Co2 dissolves is ocean water, causes pH to go down, leads to dissolving of calcium carbonate, which is what coral reefs and mollusks are made of
Clearest signal of climate change effect on earth’s biota
studies of phonology, seasonally timing of plant and animal life-history events
Warmer springs should
-cause faster development -shift timing of springtime life-history events earlier
Metabolic rates are closely related to ____________
Northern hemisphere
as southern regions warm, species need to shift their ranges north to maintain similar temperature regime
as climate warms, species in or near mountains need to shift to higher elevations to maintain similar temperature regime
results from a change in genetic composition of a population over generations
some species more sensitive to global warming than others
-tropical species have narrower “comfort zones” are thermal specialists, more sensitive to warming -mild temperature species less sensitive to warming
heavy use affected insects and birds, prompted Rachel Carson to write silent spring, helped catalyze the environmental movement, lead to tight regulations on use in USA, but not REDUCED
USA clean air act 1963
is one of the most comprehensive clean air acts in world -responsible for vastly improved air quality
USA clean water act 1972
resulted in much cleaner waters (even though original goals have not yet been achieved)
Acid rain
-caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, produced largely from coal burning -adverse impacts on forests,freshwaters, and soils -many different environmental regulations enacted -since the 1990s, SO2 emissions have dropped 40% -acid rain levels have dropped, ~65% since 1976
Ozone Depletion
-ozone layer blocks UVB light which causes skin cancer -drastic ozone decrease noted above antarctica from early to mid 1980s -in mid 1980s, cause determined to be result of manufactured chemicals in fridges, solvents, propellants
Montreal production (1987)
banned production of ozone-depleting chemicals, followed by amendments enabling more restrictions -all production halted in 1989 -ozone layer stabilized, rising slightly now -projected to reach pre 1980s levels by 2070 Nearly all of our activities have a carbon footprint -our carbon impact has global implications -different from pollution and acid rain -similar to the ozone hole problem
The paris agreement (2015)
legally binding international climate change treat
Infrastructure investment and jobs act (2021)
includes funds for increasing public transportation
Transportation, Electricity Production and industry:
are primary sources of energy pollution
Divest from fossil fuels
do not support banks that support the fossil fuel industry
Beware if industry tactics
decades spent convincing the public that personal actions is only way to fix the environment
The most sustainable option
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