Unit 1 AP Psych Vocab

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68 Terms
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the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. Interested in what the mind is made up of
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
A branch of psychology that focuses on the study of observable behavior
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
Cognitive Psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, judging and perceiving
the science of behavior and mental processes
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology
Modern version of psychoanalytic - A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. Keywords: unconscious, childhood, dream analysis, hypnosis, free association.
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
socio-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Mary Calkins
Completed the requirements for her doctorate in psychology but Harvard denied her degree; first female president of APA
Charles Darwin
Founder of the evolutionary predictive and evolution
Dorthea Dix
created the first generation of American and European mental asylums; was an advocate for the mentally ill
Sigmund Freud
Founded psychoanalysis and theory of unconscious mind
G. Stanley Hall
Founded APA, first person to earn a degree in psychology, helped establish psychology as an academic field
William James
Founded functionalism, founder of American psychology, first to teach psychology psychology
Ivan Pavlov
discovered classical conditioning, one of the founders of behavioralism
Jean Piaget
Known for his theory of cognitive development in children
Carl Rogers
founder of humanistic perspective and created unconditional positive regard
B. F. Skinner
behaviorism; skinner box
Margret Floy Washburn
first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology
John Watson
founder of behaviorism
William Wundt
father of psychology, separated psychology from philosophy, first to be referred to as a psychologist, established first true experimental lab in modern psychology
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
the middle score in a distribution
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
random sampling
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Scatter plot
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
illusion correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn for a study
items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
placebo effect
any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo
experimental group
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
informed consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants