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Spaced Repetition

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Practice Test




What Does Doodling Do? (2009)

54 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (54)
Cognitive - concentration, attention, and functioning of memory
explores the role of doodling on concentration and attention
none specific to this study but Andrade already knew a few things
Background #1
people daydream during boring tasks to distract themselves
Background #2
people doodle when they get bored
Background #3
we don't know if doodling aids or impairs attention
Background #4
doodling increases the load on working memory, but doesn't affect higher order thinking, therefore: - it's a low load on executive functioning that prevents daydreaming - doodling as a secondary task keeps the mind from daydreaming
to test whether doodling aids in concentration of a boring task
Doodling can improve concentration and memory of a conversation. (one-tailed)
Independent Variable
doodling group/condition, non-doodling (control) group/condition (independent measures)
Dependent Variables
1) memory - surprise memory test at the end (names, places) 2) concentration and attention - monitoring of conversation, correct names of party goers
- controlled laboratory experiment - independent measures - controls for the practice effect - memory: the surprise test concentration: writing down the names of party goers
Apparatus for Control Group
A4 lined paper and a pencil
Apparatus for Doodling Group
A4 paper with alternating squares and circles to shade in and a pencil
Apparatus for Both Groups
2.5 minutes phone message with speaking rate of 227 wpm and comfortable listening volume
content of phone message
- 8 names of people attending the party - 3 names of people not attending the party - Ben the cat - 8 places
- 40 individuals aged 18 to 55 years - 20 randomly assigned to each group - majority female - 18F to 2M in control, 17F to 3M in experimental - one person in experimental group didn't doodle so they were replaced
Situational Control
Alertness and activity is controlled for by using an opportunity sample on a group of people that just completed a study
Instructional Control
All participants being told that the message would be dull prevented them from being interested
Material Control
The monotone of the message controls for any nonverbal cueing of any information
Task Control #1
The use of two different sensory tasks prevents the splitting of attention
Task Control #2
Not letting the participants know about the memory test at the end prevents them from using any type of memory enhancer
Task Control #3
The same type of doodling prevents freehand doodling and shading replicates real-world doodling
Task Control #4
The use of counterbalancing ensures that the order in which the information is asked doesn't make a difference
half the group does A first, then B, and the other half does B first, then A
Scoring Control
Subtracting false alarms prevents guessing from affecting results
Step 1 (Procedure)
All participants completed a prior unrelated study before this one
Step 2 (Procedure)
All participants were given standardized instructions to listen to a dull, boring message and to write down the names of the party goers
Step 3 (Procedure)
All papers were collected when the message ended
Step 4 (Procedure)
Surprise memory test
Step 5 (Procedure)
Participants were debriefed and apologized to
quantitative data - mean number of correct party goers written down and mean number of correct places and names for the memory test, with false alarms subtracted
Finding #1
The doodling group (7.8) wrote down more correct names of party goers than the control group (7.1)
Finding #2
The doodling group (7.5) recalled significantly more (29%) names and places in the memory test than the control group (5.8)
Conclusion #1
Doodling aids in concentration by reducing daydreaming
Conclusion #2
Doodling has a beneficial effect on the monitoring and recalling of boring material
Informed consent (ethics)
Andrade explained the experiment and got verbal consent from the participants, deception by omission of the surprise memory test was used
Confidentiality (ethics)
Only extremely basic, nondescript demographics are known regarding the participants
Protection from harm (ethics)
None of the participants were placed in any danger
Debriefing (ethics)
The participants were told the truth of the study, and Andrade even apologized
Strength #1
Since the experiment is in a laboratory, there is a high level of controls and therefore, it is highly likely that doodling is the only variable that affected the DV.
Strength #2
The standardization of the instructions allows for easy replication of the experiment
Strength #3
The data being quantitative and objective makes it statistically comparable
Strength #4
The use of independent measures prevents the practice effect, the fatigue effect, and participants from guessing aim
Weakness #1
The genders of the participants are very disproportionate, with no kids or elderly, which makes generalization difficult.
Weakness #2
Since the experiment took place in a laboratory, there is low ecological validity
Weakness #3
The task has low mundane realism because doodling while listening to a boring phone message and then being tested on it is not a real-world task
Weakness #4
The use of independent measures may create participant variables such as memory and doodling ability
Issue & Debate (application)
These findings can be applied to students in school with a primary auditory task, to any boring tasks in the business world, and to therapy for depression.
Issue & Debate (individual)
- Some people already use similar strategies to prevent boredom - Extroverts may get bored more easily because they don't have anything entertaining them
Issue & Debate (situational)
The act of doodling caused the improvement, not the person itself
space or spot
working memory
short-term memory
function of memory
coding, storing and processing of information