Biology UNIT 1 FlashCards

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51 Terms
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Standard Error of the Mean
a statistical term that measures the accuracy with which a sample distribution represents a population by using standard deviation
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much data varies around the mean
Error Bars
On bar or line graphs
Normal Curve
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many attributes of chance. Most scores fall near the average
A Histogram
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
Confidence Intervals
The range on either side of an estimate that is likely to contain the true value for the whole population (2 Standard Errors)
What Standard Error Measures
What Standard Deviation Measures
Sample Size
The number of times a measurement is replicated in data collection
The arithmetic average of a distribution
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Bucket Size
How to separate groups of data in a histogram
Column Chart
Used when comparing the means of different groups
Box Plots
Alt version of Column Chart that is used when data is not normally distributed
Line Graph
A type of chart that displays a series of data points; in biological context
Scatter Chart
Used to compare two continuous variables; allows us to visualize patterns between 2 variables and allows for more than 1 value for each variable
R^2 = 0
This means a change in one variable cannot predict the other variable.
R^2 = 1
This means that a change in one variable is perfectly
Characteristics of Life
order, reproduction, growth and development, energy processing, regulation, response to the environment, evolutionary adaptation
Defining and classifying biological organisms by shared characteristics
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Random Dispersal
Individuals in a population are spaced in an unpredictable way without a pattern. ex. dandelions that grow from windblown seeds might be randomly dispersed.
Uniform Dispersal
Individuals are separated by a fairly consistent distance
Clumped Dispersal
Individuals are grouped in patches
Carrying Capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Logarithmic Growth
Growth of a population that levels off at carrying capacity
Exponential Growth
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
An organism's particular role in an ecosystem; the ecosystem resources and conditions in which a species can grow and thrive
Community Ecology
The interaction of communities (between MULTIPLE species)
A Group of Populations
Principle of Competitive Exclusion
Two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot exist together at a consistent population value
Niche Partitioning
Organisms find parts of a niche and adapt to it to avoid competition
Fundamental Niche
Where organism would potentially be
Realized Niche
Where organism is due to niche partitioning
Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism
Examples of Exploitation
When an association becomes consistent, often species eventually require the other for survival
Keystone Species
A species that has a disproportionate effect on its community (predator, mutualist, ecosystem engineer)
Primary Succession
Begins in a Lifeless Area; Starts with Rock (no soil) - Type of Succession
Ecological Succession
The transition in species composition over ecological time (plants and species)
Secondary Succession
Starts with Soil - Type of Succession
How Energy is Transferred
Trophic Structure
A pattern of feeding relationships
Producers → Primary → Secondary → Tertiary → Quaternary
Trophic Levels
Plant materials and animal waste used as fuel
How Matter Moves through an Ecosystem
Carbon Cycle
The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
Nitrogen Cycle
The circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil
Excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen (fancy term for fish kill)