health ed nov 2022 (copy)

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50 Terms
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dietary reccomendations
- meal frequency and timing - food plate model - eat a rainbow a day - eat 5-7 times a day at even intervals
Food plate model
knowt flashcard image
An organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires
Vitamin E
Found in: corn, nuts, olives, leafy green vegetables, vegetable oils and wheat germ Food alone cannot provide a benefitial amount, supplements are helpful
Vitamin C
Ascorbic acid Found in: citrus fruits, green peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli and sweet/white potatoes
Vitamin A/beta carotene
A: animal sources such as eggs, meat and dairy products Beta carotene: green leafy vegetables, intensely coloured fruits and vegetables
Vitamin D
The body makes vitamin D when exposed to sun Found in: cheese, butter, margarine, fish, fortified milk/cereals
Vitamin B1
Found in: fortified breads/cereals, fish, lean meats and milk
Vitamin B12
Found in: eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, milk and milk products
free radicals
Highly reactive chemicals, they harm cells and form health conditions when a molecule or atom gains or loses an electron.
Primarily known for neutralising free radicals. They are naturally created by the body but we need more from food (blueberries, apples…)
A marketing term with minimal scientific basis. Superfoods -term contains a health claim that a food product would provide health benefits due to exceptional nutrient density. In many cases not true.
Disease from lack of vitamin C Early symptoms: weakness, feeling tired and sore arms and legs. Without treatment: decreased red blood cells, gum disease, changes to hair, and bleeding from the skin may occur
Disease from lack of vitamin D/calcium Causes bone pain, poor growth and soft, weak bones that can lead to bone deformities.
Disease from lack of vitamin B1 Wet beriberi: affects the cardiovascular system. Life-threatening medical emergency. Dry beriber: affects the central nervous system Disrupts motor functioning, impairs reflexes and numbness.
Most essential minerals:
When you eat a healthy diet that includes a variety of vegetables, beans, fruits, whole grains, lean protein, dairy products, and unsaturated fats (like olive oil), you're likely consuming all the healthy minerals you need. You probably don't need to pay attention to your daily intake.
The most common (99%) in bones Function: essential for normal bone and teeth formation well-known sources: dairy products and grains vegetarians and lactose-intolerants can have a low intake of calcium → calcium supplement is needed You need huge amounts now for growing and building bones and teeth
Osteoporosis causes
Low intake of calcium has a role in development of osteoporosis (other risk factors include: gender, age, body size) although family history was the most important factor
Sodium chloride aka salt
Recommendations: women 6g/day, men 7g/day Daily intake: women 7g/day, men 10g/day High intake can raise blood pressure (heart diseases) Sources: grain and meat products
Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge Hard and/or long-distance exercise → sweating → low salt (electrolyte) level → sports drinks Lack of electrolytes can cause cramps, cramp is involuntary contraction of one or more of your muscles
Blood pressure
Pressure of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries Systolic/diastolic pressure: ideal 120/80 mmHg
- function: oxygen carrier in red blood cells’ hemoglobin Iron from food comes in two forms, heme and non heme
The protein in red blood cells Vital in endurance sports: High red blood cell volume means you have a high oxygen transport to the active skeletal muscles because of a high cardiac output, which makes you have a higher athletic performance.
Heme iron
Sources: meat fish and poultry
Non heme iron
Sources: plants, absorption can be boosted by Vitamin C
Iron defficiency
Iron deficiency: the lack of iron due to increased need for iron or decreased amount of intake Teenage girls: growth + physical activity + the iron lost during menstruation + if careless eating habits → iron deficiency
Iron defficiency anemia
Iron deficiency anemia = prolonged, low intake of iron leads to decreased level of hemoglobin Anemia: a medical condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal
Iron absorbtion
improvements: foods high in vitamin C, A or beta carotene decreases: phytate/polyphenols: black tea, coffee, wine Recommended iron intake teenage girls/boys: 11 mg 15 mg
reasons people follow special diets
- religion - Diseases and allergies - medical - Health - Beliefs and values - Culture - Training - A fad/trend - Attention
Lactose intolerance - lactose free diet
Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity of lactase that prevents the splitting of lactose → Lactose remains in the intestines → Water and fermentation → Stomach pains and gas
the milk sugar
the enzyme needed for splitting lactose into glucose and galactose
Celiac disease
digestive disease caused by grain products which contain gluten
a protein contained in wheat, rye and barley causes damage to the mucosal surface of the small intestine →interferes the absorption of nutrients
paleo(lithic) diet
Aka Caveman diet, Hunter-Gatherer diet, Stone Age Diet The idea is to follow diet similar to our ancestors millions of years ago “Paleo people” think our digestive system has not had time (evolution) to adapt to a modern, processed foods excluding e.g. grains, processed oils, dairy, refined sugar
Kosher diet - the jewish diet
All blood must be drained Meat cannot be eaten with dairy Animal that has cloven hooves are permitted ”Pareve” (neutral) can be mixed with meat/dairy Challenging to keep in practice
a term describing food that are prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Jewish law
Islamic diet - the muslim diet
Halal foods are determined in Quran Prohibited items - Pork - Animal improperly slaughtered/already dead without proper slaughter - Alcoholic drinks - Carnivorous animals
Diabetes - diabetic diet
Suits for all + high intake of unsaturated fats and dietary fiber Low intake of salt, saturated fats and sugar Type 1: the goal is to control the blood sugar levels Type 2: the goal is to prevent gaining weight
Glycemic Index (GI) represents the effect carbohydrates have on blood glucose. GI less than 55 provides sustained energy whereas high GI foods raise blood glucose rapidly
Low carb diet
The idea is to reduce the intake of carbohydrates Based on the belief that one loses weight rapidly and that LCD prevents body from various inflammation reactions (low-grade inflammation) caused by carbs
Flexitarian diet
Plant-based diet with flexibility for animal products in moderation Added sugar in moderation Refined grains in moderation
Pescetarian diet
No meat - low saturated fat intake – lower LDL-cholesterol, less cardiovascular disease, Lower body weight – diabetes risk reduced - Inappropriate treatment of farm animals - Global issues - Fish and seafood + veggies - Nutritionally high quality - Unsaturated fats and good fatty acids - Enough protein if fish is eaten regularly - No heme-iron from animal (red meat) sources → iron deficiency (?)
Lacto-ovo vegetarian diet
Dairy + eggs + veggies Nutritionally like the lactovegetarian
Lacto vegetarian diet
Dairy products + veggies The most common Nuts, legumes and seeds If the diet contains fatty dairy products → high intake of saturated fats
Vegan diet
Contains lots of antioxidants and dietary fiber Requires planning in order for one to ensure sufficient intake of nutrients Vitamin B12 and D and calcium deficiencies need to take into consideration Typically, vegans’ iron intake is sufficient (some studies suggest it is 1,4x greater). However, one needs to take poor non-heme iron absorption into consideration
Living and raw food diet
Raw vegetarian food, prepared without heating A way of living: includes e.g. good respiration techniques, relaxation, and positive thinking Low energy intake Not recommended for children or pregnant women
Dental erosion caused by
the consumption of fruit drinks and juices