Chapter 3 TEST

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46 Terms
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organic compounds
compounds that contain carbon atoms (most living things are made of these) (nucleic acids, sugar, proteins, fats)
inorganic compounds
compounds that don’t contain carbon atoms (salts, water, oxygen, stomach acids)
what are valence electrons
electrons in the outermost shell of the atom
How many valence electrons does carbon have
How many electrons do atoms want
Why do most atoms want 8 valence electrons?
It makes them stable
How many bonds can carbon form with other atoms
How do atoms get the 8 electrons they want?
they form bonds
Each bond represents how many shared electrons
What types/how many bonds can carbon form?
3, single, double, and triple (strongest) (it will take more energy to break a triple bond versus a single which would be the weakest)
what type of chains can carbon form when bonded?
straight chains, branched chains, or rings
single molecule that is apart of larger molecules
molecule that consists of repeated, linked units (monomers)
large polymers (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids)
What term do we use to refer to macromolecules specifically for life
What are carbohydrates also known as
What are carbohydrates main purpose
main source of energy for cells
What do the sugar names end in
-ose (gluCOSE, lactOSE)
single sugar molecule (glucose, fructose (fruit), & galactose (milk) (MONOMER TO CARBS)
2 monosaccharides bonded together (glucose + fructose= sucrose)
3+ bonded monosaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose)
Example of complex carbs
oats, brown rice, sweet potatoes (polysaccharides)
Examples of simple carbs
soda, cereal, white bread, candy (mono/disaccharide)
What's the main concern with simple carbs.
Simple carbs' energy don't last nearly as long therefore we tend to overeat
amino acid
monomer of proteins, 20 different ones (our body can make some amino acids), usually end in “ine” (serINE, cystINE)
a large chain of amino acids (polymer to protein)
primary protein structure
regular sequence/order of amino acids in a polypeptide
secondary protein structure
folding of the polypeptide chain into sheets and helices
tertiary protein structure
folding of the sheets/helices to form the overall 3D shape
quaternary protein structure
multiple polypeptide chains bonded together (3D shape)
speed up chemical reactions (end in -ase)
the molecule on which an enzyme acts
active site
location ON THE ENZYME where the substrate works
our fats!, made up of carbon, hydrogen, STORES the most energy, mostly nonpolar/hydrophobic
saturated vs unsaturated acids
each carbon is bonded to four other atoms, forms straight chains, solid at room temperature (butter) VS. has at least one carbon double bond, bent chains, liquid at room temperature (oil)
molecule consisting of a phosphate group, sugar ring, and a nitrogenous base (MONOMER OF NUCLEIC ACIDS)
Examples of protein food sources
meat(animal), dairy product
12. Know the functions of the different polysaccharides.
glycogen=glucose is monomer, carb stored in muscles and liver, humans can create starch=glucose is monomer, created by plants, used for sugar storage, humans eat for it cellulose=glucose is the monomer, created by plants, used for structure, humans don't use it
How are carbs different than lipids when being used for energy?
carbohydrates are available as immediate energy sources while lipids store energy for later use
Know examples (both food and other) of each kind of biomolecule.
Carbohydrates: fruits, grains, veggies, dry nuts, candy and syrups, starch, glycogen Protein: meats, fish, beans, nuts, hair/nails/hooves, antibodies, hormones, enzymes Lipids: steroids/hormones, wax, phospholipid, triglyceride, fats(oil, butter, animal fat) Nucleic Acids: RNA and DNA
How is each biomolecule used in the body?
Carbs: main source of energy for cells/structure Proteins: movement, carry messages (hormones), immunity, external structures Lipids: stores energy for later use Nucleic acids: stores/transfers genetic info throughout body
What's the chemical structure of each biomolecule?
Carbs: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (1:2:1) Protein: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen Lipid: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Nucleic acids: composed of nucleotides which consist of a phosphate, group, a sugar ring, and a nitrogenous base
Difference between hydrophobic/philic
Hydrophobic=water fearing (nonpolar) Hydrophilic=water loving (polar)
Difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acid tails in both their chemical structure and their physical appearance?
Unsat=less than 4 bonds, least 1 double carbon bond, looks bent (liquids) Sat= has maximum of 4 carbon bonds and will form straight chain (solids)
Difference between RNA and DNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores genetic information while RNA (ribonucleic acid) transfers genetic information
What causes the secondary and tertiary levels of protein structure?
There are 20 different amino acids and all of them are different because of the R group. Due to the interactions between the R-groups the amino acids will want to be either farther/closer together hence the folding and bending. There are 4 different categories of attraction: polar, nonpolar, positive, negative (they will all be attracted to the same (polar attracted to polar, nonpolar attracted to nonpolar and so on)