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Module 2

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Neurons
Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to preform information-processing tasks.
Soma
Manufactures big and small cell bodies as well as Proteins. Responsible for continuous renewal of cell components
Dendrite
The part of a neuron that receives information [signals] from other neurons and relays it to the cell body.
Axon
The part of a neuron that transmits information to neighboring cells
Myelin Sheath
An insulating layer of fatty material.
Glial cells
Support cells found in the nervous system. Provides scaffolding for efficient neurotransmission
Synapse
The space or region between the axon of one neuron that transfers electric activity
Sensory neurons
Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord.
Motor neurons
Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement.
Interneurons
Neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, and other interneurons.
Resting potential
The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane. Neurons are not stimulated
Action potential
An electric impulse that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse.
Absolute Refractory period
The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse enabling transfer of chemical messages
Receptors
Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electric signal.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control. Activates muscle action
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal.
Glutamate
A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain. Memory
GABA (gamma-aminobutric acid)
The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Calming
Serotonin
Well-being and Happiness. Influences sleep and Digestive system
Endorphins
Chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain. Euphoria
Agonists
Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter.
Antagonists
Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.
Nervous system
An interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body.
Central nervous system
The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles.
Somatic nervous system
A set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system. Voluntary movement
Autonomic nervous system
A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands.
Sympathetic nervous system
A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations. Fight or Flight
Parasympathetic nervous system
A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state.
Spinal reflexes
Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.
Hindbrain
An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord.
Medulla
An extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration.
Reticular Activating System
A brain structure that controls consciousness, response, and movement
Cerebellum
A large structure of the hindbrain that balances and controls fine motor skills.
Pons
A brain structure that conveys information from the cortex to the cerebellum
Cerebral cortex
The outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres.
Limbic system
A group of forebrain structures including the septum, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory.
Thalamus
A subcortical structure that relays information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex. Gateway from sense organs
Hypothalamus
A subcortical structure that regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior. Regulates endocrine system
Pituitary gland
The "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.
Hippocampus
A structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex. Memory indexer
Amygdala
A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.
Basal ganglia
A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements. Brain’s reward circuit
Corpus callosum
A thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.
Occipital lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that interprets visual stimuli and recognition
Parietal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing tactile sensory
Temporal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
Frontal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement.
Gene
The unit of hereditary transmission.
Chromosomes
Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix configuration.
Neuropeptides
Natural occurring opioids causing Pain reduction and Euphoria; Endorphins
Anandamide
Pain Reduction, Memory, Sleep
Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter responsible for Brain arousal, mood, hunger, sleep
Nodes of Ranvier
Notches between Myelin Sheats facilitating saltatory conduction of Axon impulses
Synaptic Vessels
Terminal Buttons containing neurotransmitter
Oligodendrocyte
Produces Myelin Sheats
Psychoactive Drugs
Affecting directly production and inhibition if specific neurotransmitters
Endocrine System
Contains hormone secreting glands
Hormones
Molecules influencing emotions and stress
Adrenal Gland
Gland Releases adrenaline and cortisol during arousal
Thyroid Gland
Gland responsible for Metabolism
Sexual Reproductive Gland
Gland that contains Testosterone and Estrogen
Neuroplasticity
Nerve system’s ability to change, adapt, and modify over time