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65 Terms
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what are the three levels of government in america
national/federal, state, local
what are the 3 branches of the federal government
executive, legislative, judicial
Who is in the Executive Branch?
Who is in the legislative branch?
who is in the congress
senate and house of representatives
which election happens every 4 years
presidential election
what election happens every 2 years
house of representative election
what election happens every 2 years in thirds
senate election
what is the definition of incumbent
current office holder
what are the primary elections or "primaries"
elections used by the political parties to pick their candidate - for every elective position
what do we call the year in between presidential elections - 2020 through 2024, 2022 was ___
mid term
What was the Renaissance?
a great burst of learning and technological innovation
what does renaissance mean
when was the renaissance
late 1300s - 1600s
who was johannes gutenberg
german inventor of printing press
was johanes gutenberg the first to invent the printing press
no, china invented it first, but didn't share it with the world - gutenberg invented it with no knowledge of chinese version and with european letters
why did western leaders look for alternative rade routes to asia
Italians controlled land routes, so Europeans tried to find a water route so they could control trade with Asia through the ocean
what did Spain and France have in common from the colonization of the Americas
absolute monarchy - similar ruling styles
what law did the spanish make to enforce their rule
law of the Indies - governed every day life in New Spain
what treasure did the spanish find in the americas
gold and silver - caused forced labor
what was the north west passage
water route through or around north america to asia - wasn't found
why were there very few settlers in New France
lack of gold and silver, colder, hard to farm
what was the "gold" in new france
what was the difference between the french and the spanish
spain enslaved native americans, france gained good relations with Native americans for trade
where was new netherland
below new france
who took over new netherland, making new netherland a short term rule for the dutch
british settlers
What was the Protestant Reformation?
a divide in religion with Europe
who was martin luther
a german monk who challenged many practices of the catholic church
what did martin luther found
Lutheran Church
which countries were catholic
Spain and France
which countries were protestant
England and the Netherlands
what did samuel de chaplain found and when?
port royal in 1605
what was important about port royal
first permanent French settlement in North America
what did Samuel de chaplain do 3 years after founding a settlement
led a group of french settlers along a route Jaques Cartier had developed
what did de chaplain build
trading port now known as Quebec
Why did france grow slowly
not many settlers came to North America
where did peter minuit lead the dutch settlers
to the mouth of the hudson river
what did minuit buy from the Native Americans
Manhattan Island
what did Minuit call manhattan island
New Amsterdam
why were the dutch and the french rivals
They became rivals in the fur industry and both wanted better relations with the Native americans
how did the dutch and the french compromise with each other
they made an alliance where the Dutch became allies with the iroquoi and the French became allies with the Huron
who gained the queens permission to start a settlement in the americas - Roanoke
sir walter raleigh
when and how many people set sail to come to the americas
in 1586 100 british men came to the Americas and landed in the island of roanoke
What happened a year into the settling of Roanoke?
settlers ran out of food and began quarreling with Native Americans
what was sir raleigh's plan to fix the disasters in Roanoke, but what ended up happening?
planned to return to england for 3 months and collect supplies, however, England was preparing for war so he ended up staying for 3 years
what happened when raleigh came back to roanoke
found the colony deserted with a single clue hinting to where they had gone, a tree that said "ROANOKE"
when was jamestown settled
20 years after the failure at roanoke, 1607
who founded jamestown
the virginia company of london
why did the virginia company of london set it up?
heard of spains increasing monetary growth and wanted the riches for themselves
what is a charter
A legal document giving certain rights to a person or company
what problems did Jamestown face
governing the colony, starvation - settlers werent used to living in the wilderness and didn't know how to use their resources - didn't spend enough time producing food - settlers searched in vain for gold instead of foraging and planting food
Who was John Smith and what did he do?
english captain who set up strict rules and forced colonists to work if they wanted to eat
how did jamestown begin to succeed
grew tobacco plantations - imported to England
what was the house of burgesses
The burgesses, or representatives to the government that were elected by only male settlers, met in an assembly called the house of Burgesses
why was the house of burgesses important
signifies the beginning of representative government in the english colonies
what was the role of women in jamestown
brought to Jamestown to make men more settled and had to make food, clothing, and medicine from scratch
what is a rough percentage of women to men in jamestown
roughly 30% of jamestown was women - less than 300 women for over 1000 men
how was slavery introduced to Jamestown
introduced through the dutch because the dutch sold enslaved africans to the virginians since they needed laborers to grow tobacco
what two things are needed to technically commit a crime in america
mens rea and actis reas
what is mens rea
mindset needed for a crime
what is actis reas
act/conduct needed for a crime
what was prince henry called
the navigator
what was special about prince henry
set up schools for ship building and sailing
what is a caravel
type of ship used by prince henry
characteristics of a caravel
triangular sails, smaller ship