OTA 110 Human Development

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Why do we study human development?
To understand changes that occur throughout life & be able to provide age-appropriate activities
What is The World Health Organization (WHO)?
United Nations specialized agency in 1948 with international cooperation organize epidemic control, quarantine measures, drug standardization, promoting the highest possible level of health (“a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.")
What is included in the International Classification of Disease (ICD)?
Trends, diagnostic classification system, and causes of death.
Explain the International Classification of Function, Disability, and Health (ICF)?
The mainstreaming of disability as a recognized universal human experience, with health and disability in a new light. As any and every person can experience a fall in health and some range of disablement. The main concept of health focus over disability.
What is the OT vision for 2025?
“As an inclusive profession, occupational therapy maximizes health, well-being, and quality of life for all people, populations, and communities through effective solutions that facilitate participation in everyday living.”
Phonology is?
The arrangement of sounds. Created from individual sounds called phonemes to manifest words for meaningful dialogue.
Morphology is?
The structure of words.
Syntax is?
The arrangement of words which give it meaning.
Pragmatics is?
The rational thought of the flow and conduct of discussion that is allowed in a specific environment or situation.
What is the sensitive period for language development?
Birth to 3 months
What is the Prelinguistic Development? (0-12 months)
Infancy communication of initially crying to express emotion or signify basic needs. Then begin to coo and create consonant-vowel sounds which start babbling and imitating attempts with features that give rhythm, pitch, length, and loudness to speech.
What is Unintentional Communication?
Cues that give information to others, whether it be by non-verbal or verbal expression.
What is Intentional Communication?
The comprehension of individuals within different cultures and how they behavior, talk, and view the world.
What is Unconventional Communication?
Email, video/voice calls, text, etc.
What is Conventional Communication?
Letters, Books, Drawings.
What is Symbolic Communication? (12-24 months)
The development of non-verbal and verbal communication with a shared message between sender and receiver using abstract and concrete symbols.
What is Linguistic Development? (12-48 months)
The start of first languages with one-word utterances, then later become two-word, then small phrases with little structure. Gaining the comprehension of the relationship of subject-verb-object for phrases to gain meaning.
What is Sentence Embedding? (41-46 months)
The creation of short phrases from limited pragmatics and syntax. And the connection of sentences is learned.
What is Speech Apraxia?
Motor Control Disorder
What is Dysarthria?
Slurred or slowed speech
Culture is?
Learnt, localized, patterned, confers meaning & values, persistent yet adaptive.
What is Egalitarianism?
Belief in the equality of all people
What is Cultural Competency?
The ability to comprehend, appreciate, and interact with others of different beliefs and cultures in contrast to one's own
What is Cultural Humility?
According to The National Institutes of Health (NIH), “a lifelong process of self-reflection and self-critique whereby the individual not only learns about another's culture, but one starts with an examination of her/his own beliefs and cultural identities.”
What is Cultural Fluidity?
Person's ability to understand the impact of cultural differences on occupation.
What is Gary Kielhofner's definition for culture?
“the beliefs and perception, values and norms, and customs and behaviors that are shared by a group of society and are passed from one generation to the next through both formal and informal education”
What is Cultural Pluralism?
The celebration of culture, for they are believed to add to society.
What is a Monochromatic use of time?
The perception of being aware of the importance of using time, aka conscious of its worth.
What is a Polychromic use of time?
The perception of being lazy or using time without purpose or goal.
What are High Context Cultures?
The shared moments of relationships having more value than words.
What are Low Context cultures?
The necessity for clear, distinct verbal communication and dialogue in relationships.
What are the steps for ethical considerations?
Awareness, Reflection, Support, & Action.
What is Developmental Theory?
The changes over a lifetime that is viewed as the interaction of a child's origin and maturation, treatment, the surrounding community, and culture.
What areas are in the Affective Domain?
Feeling, temperament, and personality.
What is the ID?
The origin of basic human motivations for basic needs
What is Superego?
The symbolic interpretation of parental and societal values and rules.
What is Ego?
The balance and mediator for the ID, Superego, and the world. The moral compass towards retrieving basic needs.
What is the Latency Phase of Freud's Psychosexual stages? (6 years old to purberty?
The resolution of the Oedipus & Electra complexes, and the liberty to create relationships with other people.
What is the order of Freud's Psychosexual Stages?
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Genital
Explain Lawerence Kohlberg's Moral Development
The developmental process for moral reasoning requires social learning, cognitive development, and temperament. Necessary to avoid the consequences of the law to uphold society and apply to the conscience.
What are the 9 traits of temperament?
Sensory Threshold, Activity Level, Intensity, Rhythmicity, Adaptability, Mood, Approach/Withdrawal, Persistence, and Distractibility.
What is Intensity?
The expressiveness of a kid
What is rhythmicity?
The predictability of bodily function
What is approach/withdrawal?
The reaction to new environments or situations by children
How does John Bowlby explain Attachment?
The promotion of survival from the connection of an infant to their caregiver. The creation of affectionate bonds from the start of a set of innate signs that call over the adult.
Explain secure attachment style children.
The healthiest relationship between guardian and child. The ability to cope with loneliness, ask for assistance, and communicate well.
Explain avoidant attachment style children?
Difficulty in being vulnerable in relationships, most comfortable with independence.
Explain ambivalent style children?
Problems with trusting others, having an unhealthy attachment from insecurity. Inconsistently raised or neglected.
What is Piaget's Cognitive Theory?
The natural desire for children to learn, by their experiences which creation knowledge of the world.
Schema is?
The kind of knowledge and the process of receiving knowledge that help interpretations and comprehensions of the world.
What is Assimilation?
The supplement of new data to the current knowledge base, occasionally reinterpreting new experiences to fit with past information.
What is Accomodation?
The adaptation and change of existing knowledge base reacting to new experience, that change or replace concepts based on new data.
What is the Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development? (Birth - 2 years old)
Infants gain knowledge of the world is gained from sensations and motions like sucking, listening, and looking. Object permanence is learned. The understanding of separation of themselves from the objects and people around them. Cause & Effect. The mix of accommodation and assimilation.
What is the Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development? (2-7 years old)
The start of symbolic thinking and utilizing new words and images to represent objects. Egocentric, still tend to ponder about objects very concretely.
What is the Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development? (7-11 years old)
The logical thought process of concrete events. Being able to comprehend the idea of conservation. Start of inductive reasoning utilizing specific data to a general concept.
What is the Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development? (12+)
The start of abstract thought and hypotheticals. Moral, ethical, social, philosophical, and political issues are pondered over with abstract and theoretical reasoning. Deductive reasoning begins with general principles coming from specific data.
What is John Dewey's Theory of Progressive Education?
The concept of education molds a child's development. That education should teach in more informal settings that promote exploration and growth as well as problem solving over rote memorization.
What are Gesell Schedules?
The standards for child development based on maturation and heredity.
What is Robert Sears psychoanalytic theory?
The necessary learning, physical growth, and social requirements to learn from social interactions.
Trust vs Mistrust (0-1 years old)
At this stage, babies learn to trust that their parents will meet their basic needs. If a child's basic needs aren't properly met at this age, he or she might grow up with a general mistrust of the world.
Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (2-3 years old)
As toddlers, children begin to develop independence and start to learn that they can do some things on their own (such as going to the toilet). If a child is not encouraged properly at this age, he or she might develop shame and doubt about their abilities.
Initiative vs Guilt (4-6 years old)
As preschoolers, children continue to develop more independence and start to do things of their own initiative. If a child is not able to take initiative and succeed at appropriate tasks, he or she might develop guilt over their needs and desires.
Industry vs Inferiority (7-12 years old)
Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self- confidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex.
Identity vs Role Confusion (13-19 years old)
Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self- confidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex.
Intimacy vs Isolation (20-34 years old)
During early adulthood most people fall in love, get married and start building their own family. If a person is unable to develop intimacy with others at this age (whether through marriage or close friendships), they will probably develop feelings of isolation.
Generativity vs Stagnation (35-65 years old)
This is the longest period of a human's life. It is the stage in which people are usually working and contributing to society in some way and perhaps raising their children. If a person does not find proper ways to be productive during this period, they will probably develop feelings of stagnation.
Integrity vs Despair (65+)
As senior citizens, people tend to look back on their lives and think about what they have or have not accomplished. If a person has led a productive life, they will develop a feeling of integrity. If not, they might fall into despair.
What is Mitosis?
DNA duplication via two identical diploid daughter cells
What is Meiosis?
DNA cell duplication by four haploid cells
What is an Allele?
Gene or set of genes inhabiting the same place.
What is genotype?
The allele combinations for a specific gene
What is phenotype?
The physical traits impacted by genotype.
What are the side effects of taking psychoactive drugs when pregnant?
Slowed fetal growth and risk increase for premature labor.
What is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?
Conditions resulting from withdraw of drugs exposed to when infant was in the womb.
What is the Fetal Alcohol Effect?
The result of the increase of miscarriage, developmental delay, and hyperactivity in the child from a small to moderate amount of alcohol consumption around 2-4 drinks frequently.
What is Oligohydramnios?
An insufficient amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus
What is Polyhydramnios?
Excessive amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus
Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, & Respiration
Neonatal Period
The first four weeks
What is the Ductus Arteriosus?
Opening between the pulmonary artery and aorta of the heart
What is the Foramen Ovale?
Opening between the wall that separates the right and left atria of the heart.
What is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?
Common in premature babies, is when the ductus does not close causing too much blood around the heart to circulate, pulmonary hypertension, weakening and enlargement of the heart, and may cause SOB and cyanosis.
What is Patent Foramen Ovale?
As seen in some babies with Down Syndrome, a tiny clot occurs when the hole in the heart the atrium septum does not close causing an increase in BP around the chest, a mix of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood, and increased chances of stroke.
What is formed when RBCs break down?
What is Kernicterus?
Brain damage that results when severe jaunduce goes untreated for too long.
How can Jaundice and Kernicterus be treated?
Intake of baby's milk intake may be increased and blood exchange tansfusion
Colic is
Frequent, prolonged, intense crying or fussiness in a healthy baby.
What is the visual acuity of a newborn?
8-12 inches
When can infants discriminate color?
3-4 months old
What is Cerebral Palsy?
A brain injury caused by lack of oxygen being non-progressive. With symptoms that depend on the area of the brain affected. And can cause mild to severe physical limitations.
What can cause CP?
Neonatal Encephalopathy/Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), Periventricular Leukomalacia, CNS infection, Intraventricular hemorrhage, High bilirubin, and Respiratory Distress Syndrome/Hyaline Membrane Disease.
Neonatal Encephalopathy/Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is?
a generalized nervous system dysfunction
What is periventiricular leukomalacia (PVL)?
Necrosis of white matter
What is inraventricular hemorrhage?
Bleeding near the ventricles of the brain
What movement is dominate at birth?
Random movements and reflexes with an absence of postural control.
What movement is dominate at age 2?
Walking, running, managing stairs (with assistance), functional use of hand to manipulate small items, scribble.
What causes Marasmus?
A diet low in all essential nutrients
What causes Kwashiorkor?
An unbalanced diet low in protein
What is Calibration of Movement?
Ability to judge the required "force, speed, and directional control needed to complete a task."
What is a rooting reflex?
To orient to the source of food
What is a suck-swallow reflex?
To breast or bottle-feed.
When does Voluntary sucking happen?
4 to 6 months
When does spoon feeding happen?
6 months
When is a child able to eat a variety of solid food?
12-15 months
What is invisible displacement?
The ability to find an object that has been moved while out of sight.
What is early mental representational thought? (18 months-2 years)
The internal depictions of objects and events
What is deffered imitation?
Ability to remeber and copy behavior of the models who are not (present)
What are the phases of attachment?
Pre-attachment, attachment in the making, clear-cut attachment, and formation of a reciprocal relationship.
What is sensitive caregiving?
Responding consistently and promptly to child's needs
What is Interactional synchrony?
Responding appropriately to the reaction of the child
What is Centration?
Focus is on aspect of a situation, with an inability to consider other important features.
What is transductive reasoning?
Fails to understand the true relationships between cause and effect and sees cause where none exists.
What is the zone of proximal development?
the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance
What is overlapping waves theory?
Select strategies with the best results and practice them until there is automatic retrieval of the answer.
What are the stages of play?
Nonsocial activity, solitary play & onlooker behavior, parallel play, associative play, and cooperative play.
What is a Saccadic eye movement?
Eyes change focus from one object to another.
What are the five stages of Perspective Taking Robert Selman?
Undifferentiated perspective talking, social-informational perspective talking, self-reflective perceptual talking, third party perspective talking, and societal perspective talking.
Describe Undifferentiated perspective talking is described as
the recognition that oneself and others have different thoughts and emotions.
Social-informational perspective talking is described as
understanding that perspectives differ with the access to different information.
Self-reflective perceptual talking is described as
can view the perspective of thoughts from another's perspective.
Third party perspective talking is described as
the understanding on how third parties can view themselves and another.
Societal perspective talking is described as
how one or more systems of values of society can be impact a third party perspective.
What are the stages of adolescence?
Younger, middle, and older adolescence
When does the pre-frontal cortex
25 years old
What is fluid intelligence?
Learning new information
What is crystalized intelligence?
Using previously learnt information to solve problems.
What are acute conditions in adulthood?
Time limited, possibly life threatening, and involve function.
What are chronic conditions in adulthood?
They are stable conditions, highly unstable, are progressive, and can be severe.
What are Super's Vocational Developmental Tasks?
Crystalization, Specification, Implementation, Stabilization, and Consolidation
What is crystallization? (14-18)
Formulating a general vocational goal through awareness of resources, contingencies, interests, values, and planning for the preferred occupation.
What is specification? (18-21)
Moving from tentative vocational preferences toward a specific vocational preference.
What is Implementation? (21-24)
Completing training for vocational preference and entering employment.
What is stabilization? (24-35)
Confirming preferred career by actual work experience and use of talents to demonstrate career choice as an appropriate one.
What is consolidation? (35+)
Establishment in a career by advancement, status, and seniority.
When were the baby boomers born?
1946 to 1964
What are the three stages of old age?
Young old, mid old, and old-old
What happens in young old age?
Working or recently retired, increased time for leisure, tend to be very active, want to pursue a variety of interests, and may have to cope with chronic conditions.
What happens in mid old age?
Simplified activities and rely on social systems.
What happens in old-old age?
Reflects time of life and deals with the loss of loved ones.
What is programmed longevity?
Aging caused by certain genes switching on and off
What is the endocrine theory?
Biological clock acts through hormones control aging.`
What is immunological theory?
Immune system is programmed to decline over time that makes people more susceptible to disease.
What is somatic mutation theory?
During the reproduction of life cells, each time they divide there is a chance that the gene won't be copied correctly that is a mutation.
What is the cross-linking theory?
The buildup to cross-linked proteins damaging tissues and cells, which the aging, with over time slowed bodily processes. As well as more and more proteins and structural molecules in body developing inappropriate attachments or cross-links to one another. As they do not function properly.
What is free radical theory?
Any molecule or atom that has an unpaired electron in its outer shell, that are highly reactive and seek to be paired and can cause cellular damage that can lead to aging.
What is disengagement theory?
The separation of previously meaningful activities that is selective and redirects focus on other activities