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CH 4 - US History Holland

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42 Terms
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Stamp Act
required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, almanac, playing cards & dice
Sons of Liberty
secret resistance group in response to the Stamp Act
Samuel Adams
one of the founders of the Sons of Liberty
Stamp Act Congress
delegates from 9 colonies met in NY in 1765, issued Declaration of Rights and Grievances, colonies first began acting as one
Townshend Act
indirect tax on imported goods - caused mass boycotting of British goods, including tea, and public demonstrations called spinning bees.
Boston Massacre
clash between colonists & soldiers over jobs at the Customs House in March of 1770 -Crispus Attucks and 4 others killed
Committees of Correspondence
system to communicate w/ colonies about threats to American liberties
Tea Act
in response to colonial boycotts, British sold tea directly to colonialists cutting out colonial merchants
Boston Tea Party
Dec. 16, 1773- colonists dressed like Indians and dumped 18,000 lbs of tea in the Boston Harbor
Intolerable Acts
King George urged passing of these Acts: shut down Boston Harbor bc of refusal to pay damages, Quartering Act, Boston was placed under martial law
martial law
rule imposed by military force
1st Continental Congress
established due to the Intolerable Acts, they wanted to organize colonial resistance. resulted in minutemen stockpiling weapons
2nd Continental Congress
John Adams called for revolt - resulted in minutemen recognized as the Continental Army w/ George Washington appointed commander - authorized printing of paper Continentals - appointed committees to deal w/ foreign nations
Battle of Bunker Hill
fought on Breed's Hill, deadliest battle of the war, colonists held the high ground, but lost it due to lack of ammunition
Olive Branch Petition
sent by the 2nd Continental Congress and urged a return to "former harmony" but King George III
Common Sense
published anonymously by Thomas Paine, argued that independence was Americas destiny, endorsed by Washington
Thomas Jefferson
Virginia lawyer chosen to write committee’s points in the declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence based on...
John Locke's ideas (people are entitle to "natural rights" to life, liberty, and property)
Declaration of Independence
adopted in Independence Hall on July 4, 1776 - Jefferson declared that governments derive power from the people - “all men are created equal” did not originally include all + 1st draft attacked slavery but was edited out
John Hancock
1st signature on the Declaration of independence
Patriots
supporters of independence Ex: Quakers (did not fight), colonists who saw economic opportunity, some slaves
Loyalists
opposed independence, some slaves because they were promised freedom, most Native Americans because they viewed colonists as a bigger threat
Lexington and Concord
1st shots of the revolution - British marched along the Lexington Rd. to Concord in pursuit of stockpiles of weapons - Paul Revere rode out to spread the word of the British- (eventually captured)
Battle of Trenton
American Victory + Morale Boost - Washington led troops across Deleware river on Christmas night, 1776, and marched nine miles to surprise a Hessian garrison
Battle of Princeton
American Victory + Morale Boost - Washington led Continental Army against General Cornwallis
Battle of Philadelphia
British Victory - British took control of Philadelphia - British, under General Howe, defeat Washington's defenses - forced the Continental Congress to flee the city and the army to winter nearby
Battle of Bennington
Precursor to Battle of Saratoga - Ethan Allen + Green Mountain Boys helped American militiamen win
Battle of Saratoga
- Britain’s war strategy changed to coastal attacks after defeat - French now agree to support the Revolution
Valley Forge
- Colonial troops suffered from freezing temp, exposure, & frostbite while British troops were wintered Comfortably in Philadelphia - 2000+ died
inflation
An increase in prices or decline in purchasing power caused by an increase in the supply of money - occurred because Congress overprinted Continentals
profiteering
selling scarce goods for a profit at inflated prices, some govt. officials engaged in
U.S Strengths (3)
Familiar w/ home ground, Good Leadership, (Washington), Cause (motivation for independence)
U.S Weaknesses (4)
Soldiers poorly trained, Shortage of food & ammunition, Inferior navy, No central govt.
G.B Strengths (3)
Well-trained army & navy, Strong central govt., Support of loyalists & NA
G.B. Weaknesses. (4)
Distance from Britain, Unfamiliar w/ terrain, Weak leadership,sympathy by some
Friedrick von Steuben
Prussian captain that trained colonial soldiers, wintered at Valley Forge
Marquis de Lafayette
French aristocrat, lobbied for French reinforcements, wintered at Valley Forge
Charles Cornwallis
British General, captured Charles Town, SC in 1780 - slaves joined British to fight and escape Patriot slave owners
Battle of Yorktown
Final battle - British trapped on the peninsula by American + French troops - A French naval force defeated British fleet and then cut them off from escaping forcing British Troops to surrender
Peace talks in Paris
demanded Britain recognize American independence before negotiations started
Treaty of Paris
confirmed US independence - U.S. stretched from Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River & from Canada to Florida border - no date est. for British evacuation of forts
results of the war
1. Class distinctions had begun to blur, egalitarianism - ability, effort, & virtue defined one’s worth for white men 2. most northern states outlawed slavery 3. w/ settlers moving west, the future for Native Americans looked bad 4. Americans faced w/ the challenge of creating a govt.