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Africana midterm study guide

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Edward blyden
wanted better education for Africans where the strengths of western education was incorporated into the study of Africa and the Muslim world - integrating knowledge will make the African race smarter
Edward blyden was seen as a
pioneer of Pan-Africanism- he saw basic unity of Americans on both sides of the atlantic
pan Africanism is the idea that
peoples of African descent have common interests and should be unified.
Blyden believed that education was just a
machine, it is the duty and the interest of the country to make useful of destroy it
The point of education according to blyden is to
grow, learn, be able to handle responsibilities and have self respect. - if you looked at the black population, they didn’t have those things and were unable to deal with responsibilities around them, which showed the inadequate education for blacks.
As a black population, learning only white education...
made them feel inferior because racism was ingrained into the education curriculum - racism in education -> feeling of inferiority -> hating self and race for skin color
the standard of excellence
white complexion - blacks had to be better than everyone else to be noticed
who was edward blyden
Danish Caribbean that was the descendant of slaves - was a professor, then a Liberian ambassador
Black University
Was considered inferior by whites even though they were taught the same curriculum - bc of that blacks were unable to rise to a level to be able to show their talent and skill
American Colonization Society
a society formed in 1817 after the emancipation to send Africans back to Africa as an alternative to being free in the U.s
three groups of scholarly practitioners pushing black studies for new knowledge
traditionalist, authentists, black feminists
traditionalists
consists of black and white academicians in sociology, history, and literary theory
authentists
Black studies scholars and writers that have likewise engaged in and produced important intellectual work
authentists are determined to
create a new African methodology that allows Africans to control knowledge about themselves
authentists reject
the traditionalist and black feminist approaches because they remain rooted in European" tenets of research, evidence and argument, even as they transform those tenets in use.
subset of authentists
originists - growing prominence of a contingent of speakers, writers, adjunct or retired professors variously referred to as Nile Valley scholars, Egyptologists, or African World scholar
traditionalists and black feminists
make up one camp in the Black Studies debate. Both groups critically interrogate reigning intellectual systems, but with the positive intention of somehow reforming the academy, or making it live up to its potential.
authenitists work and people are usually
cultural nationalists, pan-Africa- nists, Afrocentrists, and Marxists. Their works are either descriptive, prescriptive, or proscriptive
black feminist scholars are people who
have been especially critical in the development of theories of intersectional analyses of race, class, and gender. In describing the existence of sexism among Black men, and by documenting the ways in which racism empowers white women to act as exploiters and oppressors
while race, class, and gender
may not be the most fundamental or important systems of oppression, but they have most profoundly affected African Americans
black feminists called attention to
sex, race, and class - it has potential to reveal insights about the social relations of domination organized along other axes such as religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and age
Darlene Hine
a professor and historian who helped found the field of black women history and black education
Afrocentrism is important because
we would have a series of Eurocentric perspectives about Africans and African American- not from a black person point of view - Afrocentrism puts the focus on Africanism and their side of history, focuses on the good and bad parts
afropositivism
emphasizes Africa's positivity, perfectness, and celebrates 'Africanness' or African solutions, uniqueness. - can be a negative thing bc it doesn’t like to mention the bad parts of Africa, views it only in a positive light, misleading
Nathan Hare
American sociologist, activist, academic, and psychologist. In 1968 he was the first person hired to coordinate a Black studies program in the United States
black campus movement general objective
was to create in varying degrees Black Universities, an educational institution controlled by Blacks that educates Black students about their experience from their perspective and gives them the tools to advance themselves and communities
black campus movement timeline
Black Campus Movement waged from the spring of 1965 to the fall of 1972
black radical tradition
- black panthers, against liberalism (they like the way the things are built just create inclusivity)
Toussaint L'Ouverture
was a former slave who rose to become the leader of the only successful slave revolt in modern history known as the Haitian Revolution
Haitian revolution
from 1791- 1804 - first revolt against slavery - started a new thought process that they can fight for freedom -French revolution would not be possible without Haitian revolution
transatlantic slave trade
because of the scientific revolution, blacks were considered as not human, making it okay to treat them so badly. - bc of that they were the first set of slaves to be treated like chattel, introduced as property -transatlantic slave trade was the path they took from africa to america -sharks
plantation economy
economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops, grown on large farms worked by laborers or slaves. The properties are called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income. - pushed blacks to past their limit
abolitionism
the process of trying to end slavery
the zong case
The Zong arrived in Black River, Jamaica with 208 enslaved people on board. The trial commenced in March of 1783, and the court found that the insurance company was liable for the damages, as enslaved people were the same as any other cargo. - The trip oversees took longer than expected so in order to save food, they threw many black people overboard.
fugitive slave act
a pair of federal laws that allowed for the capture and return of runaway enslaved people within the territory of the United States. Enacted by Congress in 1793, the first Fugitive Slave Act authorized local governments to seize and return escapees to their owners and imposed penalties on anyone who aided in their flight - many free blacks were illegally captured and sold into slavery -origin of KKK (border policing)
black codes
Black codes were restrictive laws designed to limit the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as a cheap labor force after slavery was abolished during the Civil War. - made blacks sign yearly labor contracts that was not beneficial to blacks- if they refused, they risked being arrested, fined and forced into unpaid labor
black codes restricted
black people's right to own property, conduct business, buy and lease land, and move freely through public spaces
vagrancy laws
A central element of the Black Codes, States criminalized men who were out of work, or who were not working at a job whites recognized. - forcing many to sign labor contracts - failing to pay a certain tax or comply with other laws could also get you arrested under the act
Jim crow laws
state and local laws that reinforced segregation -justified by saying seperate but equal, not true
black codes examples
1. no interacial marriage 2. can't own land -> led to vagrancy law issue 3. labor contract 4. apprenticeship laws 5. blacks cannot testify in court when whites are in a case 6. can't own guns 7. no jobs for skilled labor
1866 civil rights act
declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens, "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude." - equal benefit of all laws
1964 civil rights act
banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. · - includes voting, employment, public facilities
13th amendment
abolishes slavery
14th amendment
makes black folks citizens
15th amendment
gives black men the right to vote
process of codes
slave codes - black codes- jim crow
E.B Du Bois
The first Black American to earn a PhD from Harvard University, Du Bois published widely before becoming NAACP's director of publicity and research and starting the organization's official journal - thought capitalism was a main cause of racism -talked about double consciousness and new world
new world
new-world quest of Goodness and Beauty and Truth gone glimmering? - tearing down old society full of prejudice/ racism and starting again from scratch to create a fully inclusive and equal society - du bois came up with this idea
mammonism ??
greedy, pursuit of riches - is the destruction of the new world according to du bois - try to stay away from that -"What if to the Mammonism of America be added the rising Mammonism of the re-born South,and the Mammonism* of this South be reinforced by the budding Mammonism of its half-awakened black millions. Whither, then, is the new-world quest of Goodness and Beauty and Truth gone glimmering?" - de bois
Manichean dilemma
in the scientific era of black and white, good and bad, where everything is sorted, this is the concept where people trying to turn away from that confining definitions
double consciousness
at once a deprivation (an inability to see oneself except ‘through the eyes of others’) and a gift (an endowment of ‘second-sight’, that seems to allow a deeper or redoubled comprehension of the complexities of this American world’). - "de bois - in a racial point of view, it can cause feelings of inferiority and hatred of own race. can be seen in areas of schools, and social life - can be helpful in the act for survival
the veil
"the sight of the Veil that hung between us and Opportunity"- de bois (Black vs white) - the veil of race - beyond the Veil are smaller but like problems of ideals, of leaders and the led, of serfdom, of poverty, of order and subordination, and, through all, the Veil of Race. Few know of these problems, few who know notice them; and yet there they are, awaiting student, artist, and seer,––a field for somebody sometime to discover. - on both sides of the veil, things are changing but not at the same time or at the same rate, creates confusion, double consciousness - veil is a prison
The souls of black folk
book written by du bois that talks about racism, race relations, the veil, double consciousness, and the economic differences based on race
Gwendolyn Brooks
American poet and activist that wrote Maud Martha, a coming of age book that takes a look at a women's life and the complexity of feelings and hardships as a black women. - Takes a look at goals of black women, whether they decided to settle, let go of their dreams, or peruse them, and what cost those choices come with
James Baldwin
an activist and author of "the fire next time" talks about race, religion, and sexuality
Langston Hughes
a poet most famous for his poem, "Harlem" where he talks about a dream deferred - also wrote "I, too" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"
Booker t Washington
he cultivated the spread of vocational schools and colleges for African Americans across the South. This work garnered him widespread attention, and Washington was recognized as one of the country's primary advocates for racial equality. - urged blacks to accept discrimination and to focus on elevating themselves though hardwork (industrial skills) and material prosperity
Marcus Garvey
founder of Universal Negro Improvement Association to achieve black nationalism through celebration of African History and Culture - Jamaican - black nationalism- believed in unity, pride in the African cultural heritage, and complete autonomy
universal Negro Improvement Association
stressed black pride, racial unity of Africans Americans, and the need to redeem Africa from white rule.
Garveyism
a 20th century racial and political doctrine advocating black separation and the formation of self-governing black nations in Africa.
black nationalism
Unity and pride for black culture and what they fight for
nation of islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Elijah Muhammad
led the Nation of Islam from the time of the disappearance of its founder, Wali Fard Muhammad, until his death in 1975. In the 1960s he was described as the “most powerful Blackman in America
Stokely Carmichael/Kwame Ture
U.S. civil-rights activist who in the 1960s originated the Black nationalism rallying slogan, “Black power.” - violent revolution is necessary
Nelson Mandela
fought against history's worst legacies—racism, poverty, inequality, and hate—for decades. Even from jail. Mandela spent the prime of his life a political prisoner for his role in dismantling the system of racial segregation in South Africa known as Apartheid.
great migration
one of the largest movements of people in United States history. Approximately six million Black people moved from the American South to Northern, Midwestern, and Western states roughly from the 1910s until the 1970s. - to escape racial violence, pursue economic and educational opportunities, and obtain freedom from the oppression of Jim Crow
Harlem Renaissance
jazz, music production - Harlem Renaissance was a golden age for African American artists, writers and musicians. It gave these artists pride in and control over how the Black experience was represented in American culture and set the stage for the civil rights movement
Interventionism
intervening-> recognizing something is off - proactive - invites conversation -particularly to the practice of governments to interfere in political affairs of other countries, staging military or trade interventions. Economic interventionism refers to a different practice of intervention, one of economic policy at home.
Hidden transcripts
"Slavery, serfdom, the caste system, colonialism, and racism routinely generate the practices and rituals of denigration, insult, and assaults on the body that seem to occupy such a large part of the hidden transcripts of their victims."- james scott -. "A comparison of the hidden transcript of the weak with that of the powerful and of both hidden transcripts to the public transcript of power relations offers a substantially new way of understanding resistance to domination"- james scott - essentially a story that is not being told on both sides on both sides of the story,
NĂ©gritude
an anti-colonial cultural and political movement founded by a group of African and Caribbean students in Paris in the 1930s who sought to reclaim the value of blackness and African culture. -as a protest against French colonial rule and the policy of assimilation.
Aimé Césaire
CĂ©saire's Discourse on Colonialism argues that colonialism was not and had never been a benevolent movement whose goal was to improve the lives of the colonized; instead, colonists' motives were entirely self-centered, economic exploitation.
Leopold Senghor
He advocated a form of socialism that was based on African realities and was often called “African socialism.” Senghor's socialism was democratic and humanistic, and it shunned such slogans as “dictatorship of the proletariat.
Tulsa Race Massacre
During the Tulsa Race Massacre, which occurred over 18 hours from May 31 to June 1, 1921, a white mob attacked residents, homes and businesses in the predominantly Black Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa, Oklahoma
Black Art
trying to portray black people in a different light by putting them in things like mythology and white points of view, portraying them as elegant
black panther party
black power- purpose was to create service to those who need it -founded by bobby seal and huey newton - women were the backbone of the party - had lot of programs to help kids and people in need - don't have to be black -militant at times and radical - people only saw the bad
Huey P. Newton
-American political activist, cofounder (with Bobby Seale) of the Black Panther Party -Lawyer- watching the police as a way to be a witness -Passed away from drug use
Bobby Seale
the other founder of the black panther movement - the Planner Still alive
Angela Davis
American political activist, professor, and author who was an active member in the Communist Party and the Black Panther Party. She is most famous for her involvement with the Soledad brothers
Ella Baker
Ella Baker was the premiere behind-the-scenes organizer, co-founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) - co-founded the organization In Friendship to raise money to fight against Jim Crow Laws in the deep South.
Fred Hampton
Last leader of black panther party before going back to Huey Assassinated in bed while sleeping
Free Food Program
-Started by black panther -Started by them seeing black kids going to school hungry -Feeding all kids, not only black kids and provided healthy breakfast -Moved to breakfast, lunch, and dinner -Liberate the plates - saying they said
BPP 10 Point Program
The Ten-Point Program is a set of guidelines to the Black Panther Party and states their ideals and ways of operation, a "combination of the Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence." The document was created in 1966 by the founders of the Black Panther Party, Huey P.
the 10 points of the BBP were
1. WE WANT FREEDOM. WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES 2. WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE. 3. WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALISTS OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES. 4. WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS. 5. WE WANT DECENT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE THAT EXPOSES THE TRUE NATURE OF THIS DECADENT AMERICAN SOCIETY. WE WANT EDUCATION THAT TEACHES US OUR TRUE HISTORY AND OUR ROLE IN THE PRESENT-DAY SOCIETY 6. WE WANT COMPLETELY FREE HEALTH CARE FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE. 7. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE, OTHER PEOPLE OF COLOR, ALL OPPRESSED PEOPLE INSIDE THE UNITED STATES. 8. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO ALL WARS OF AGGRESSION. 9. WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE NOW HELD IN U. S. FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND MILITARY PRISONS AND JAILS. WE WANT TRIALS BY A JURY OF PEERS FOR All PERSONS CHARGED WITH SO-CALLED CRIMES UNDER THE LAWS OF THIS COUNTRY. 10. WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE, PEACE AND PEOPLE'S COMMUNITY CONTROL OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY
Civil Rights Movement
The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and 1960s for Black Americans to gain equal rights under the law in the United State
Martin Luther King Jr.
Dr. King led the movement to end segregation and counter prejudice in the United States through the means of peaceful protest. His speeches—some of the most iconic of the 20th century—had a profound effect on the national consciousness.
Malcolm X
an African American leader in the civil rights movement, minister and supporter of Black nationalism. He urged his fellow Black Americans to protect themselves against white aggression “by any means necessary,” a stance that often put him at odds with the nonviolent teachings of Martin Luther King, J