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What were the two first major political parties in U.S. politics?
Federalists and Democratic Republicans
What were the ideals of Democratic Republicans?
Favored state power, strict interpretation of the constitution, Jefferson's party (nation of small farmers)
What were the ideals of the Federalists?
Wanted more urban/industrialized areas of the country, loose interpretation of the constitution, strong central government, in favor of the national bank (Hamilton's party).
Who wrote the Federalist Papers?
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Where did the standard of 2 terms come from in the presidency?
Washington opted to leave office after two terms to enable a fairly consistent transfer of power. (Bonus: FDR was the first and only president to break this tradition by serving 4 terms. Legislation was then created to limit the presidency to a maximum of 2 terms)
What was the U.S. national bank?
Part of the financial plan for the U.S. that Alexander Hamilton created that was intended to be used for the government to store its money and give out loans. A generally federalist idea which was opposed by the DR party.
What did the government do with state debt?
They assumed all state debt.
What is a bond?
A loan someone gives to the government that gets paid back to them with interest.
What was Alexander Hamilton's financial plan after being appointed secretary of the treasury?
The country desperately needed money, so he put tariffs on imports, taxed whiskey and other homemade goods. Began to issue bonds, allowed the national debt to grow a bit.
What was George Washington's political party?
He had no party
Who were some notable federalists?
Hamilton + John Adams
Who were some notable Democratic Republicans?
Jefferson and Madison
What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
A rebellion that took place in western PA that involved farmers who made their own whiskey and traded it who were outraged about the tariffs placed by Hamilton.
What was George Washington's response to the whiskey rebellion?
He sent the U.S. army to quell the uprising which also acted as a message of the Federal Governments power.
How did the U.S. help French during the French Revolution?
They didn't.
Why did the French ask for help during the French Revolution?
The U.S. promised their alliance towards the French because of their help during the revolutionary war. The U.S. instead took a stance of neutrality on the matter since the country was still young.
How did the U.S. justify not helping the French when they needed it?
The U.S. claimed since it wasn't the same government that had helped during the Rev War the U.S. didn't have to.
What did the Farewell Address say?
Don't form permanent alliances.
What was Jay's Treaty?
(1794) George Washington's response to British soldiers not leaving U.S. territory. He sent John Jay to negotiate a treaty, which succeeded.
Why were Democratic-Republicans unhappy with Jay's Treaty.
It strengthened relations with Britain instead of France.
What was Pinckney's Treaty?
(1795) A treaty signed with Spain (who owned the New Orleans/Florida are) that allowed the U.S. to trade in those ports and on the Mississippi. This treaty was largely a result of Jay's Treaty.
How long did George Washington serve as president?
Two terms, left on his own terms. Set a precedent for the following presidents.
What was the XYZ affair?
Context: British relations are getting better with the U.S. so France is unhappy. Actual affair: France has begun doing what the British were doing before Jay's treaty. Harassing American ships. Adams sends people to talk with the French Foreign Minister. Minister asks for a bribe. Doesn't go well.
What is impressment?
The practice that involved military vessels boarding commercial/shipping vessels and claiming there were deserters from their country on the ship. This was likely not the case and random people would be taken and forced into that nation's army.
What was the Quasi War?
Undeclared naval war between US and France
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Laws passed that restricted immigration and citizenship into the U.S. and prevented newspapers from writing against the government (if they did it could result in a fine or jail time).
Why were the Alien and Sedition Acts controversial?
They targeted Democratic Republicans and their opposing political views to the Adams Administration, they also violated the first amendment.
What was the Revolution of 1800?
The switch of power from the Federalist party to the Democratic Republicans in the election of Thomas Jefferson.
What came as a result of the Revolution of 1800?
The removal of the Alien and Sedition Acts, better relations with France, decrease in the size/funding of congress (more focus on state power)
What are some examples of developments that took place during the industrial revolution?
Early 1800s: Steam power + railroads Late 1800s: Oil, cars/planes
What was the Market Revolution?
A direct result of the industrial revolution, people were able to get goods produced from all different parts of the country, led to a shift from local goods/farming to a national economy.
What is a turnpike?
A road that you must pay to use which were made to connect the country together more efficiently.
What is the Eire Canal system?
The system of canals built to allow ships coming from the Atlantic to get as far as the midwest.
What are the benefits of steampower?
Not dependent on weather/wind, only requires a fuel source to go.
What is an 'iron horse'?
What was the effect of railroads in the U.S.
There was a massive amount of production in the 1800s, mostly in the north (which helped in the civil war).
What is Yankee Ingenuity?
The massive increase in inventions and innovations in the 1800s. Large amounts of patents given out.
Who was Eli Whitney?
Invented the cotton gin
What does a cotton gin do?
Removes seeds from cotton.
What was an affect of the cotton gin?
Increased demand for slaves because there was more demand for cotton.
What was an interchangeable parts rifle and why was it important?
A rifle that had standardized, interchangeable parts. This made things more efficient and standardized models of general things so that people could repair them on a mass scale.
Who was John Deere? What did he do?
Invented the steel plow which improved farming.
Who was Cyrus McCormick?
inventor of the mechanical reaper which clears wheat easily.
Who was Samuel Morse?
Inventor of the telegraph and Morse Code
Who was Cyrus Field?
Laid the first transatlantic cable.
Who were Howe and Singer?
Inventors of the sewing machine.
Where did industrialization mainly take place?
The north.
What was the importance of the Supreme Court rulings that took place during the Industrial Revolution?
The court was dominated by federalist judges so there were more rulings in favor of industrialization and the federal government.
What was Dartmouth College v. Woodward?
Dartmouth predated the U.S. and wanted to stay private, but New Hampshire wanted it to become public. The court ruled in favor of Dartmouth and it stayed private.
What was McCulloch v. Maryland?
Maryland introduced that required all banks to be taxed, they tried to tax the Bank of the U.S. which refused because it was a federal institution. Ruled in favor of the Bank.
What was Gibbons v. Ogden?
There were too many ferry companies operating between NJ and NY. Jersey decided to ban all companies except one. One of the banned companies sued and the supreme court ruled that only Congress can regulate interstate commerce.
What was Fletcher v Peck?
Some guy bought land from another dude who cheated another fellow out of it. Supreme Court ruled in favor of some guy.
What was the Virginia Kentucky resolution?
Refused to enforce the Alien and Sedition acts.
Who wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions?
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Why did the Kentucky and Virginia resolution not work?
Supremacy Clause
What was the general incorporation law?
Companies can be sued as one entity instead of personally. This benefits companies in the long run.
What is laissez-faire?
An economy where the government takes a hands off approach on companies.
Did the U.S. use laissez-faire?
No, the government was involved in capitalism.
Who was Samuel Slater?
The person accredited with inventing the factory system.
What was the Lowell system?
A system of industrialism that involved workers living on the factory site which made their lives surrounded by their work. Food and housing were provided.
Who were the Lowell Girls?
The women who worked in the Lowell System. Mostly Irish.
Where did the textile boom begin?
New England
What did early unions do?
Almost nothing
What was Commonwealth v Hunt?
The Massachusetts supreme court determined that labor unions were not illegal.
What was regional specialization (aka Sectionalism)?
Different parts of the country specialized in different things. East was industrial, south was involved with cotton, west was wheat.
What was the first wave of mass immigration take place to the U.S.?
1820-1860. Mostly Irish, German and British (Northern+Western Europe)
What were the reasons for the first wave of immigration in the U.S.?
Germans were usually wealthier and came because they wanted to (tended to move around), Irish were avoiding the famine (genocide) and usually stayed in the same place.
What was the Know-Nothing Party?
The anti-immigrant, anti-catholic, anti-irish party.
Why was it called the Know-Nothing Party?
Members would shake hands and say "I know nothing"
How did the industrial revolution affect employment?
More industrial related jobs, decrease in farming jobs (this has continued to this day)
What was Marbury vs. Madison?
The supreme court case that came as a result of John Adams appointing a guy with the last name Marbury as a judge somewhere (he was doing this with many people at the end of his presidency). James Madison was supposed to confirm this but refused to. Marbury was never appointed so he sued, court ruled in favor of Madison.
What is judicial review?
The Supreme Court's authority to decide if a law violates the Constitution
What was the Louisiana Purchase?
Jefferson purchasing the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.
How did the Louisiana purchase end up happening?
Jefferson originally sent over negotiators to buy the Louisiana port and were told only to spend 10 million dollars. Napoleon offered the entire territory for 15 million, the negotiators purchased it without consulting Jefferson.
What was the controversy over the Louisiana purchase?
The constitution never mentioned anything about purchasing land from other countries, congress made a treaty in response which allowed this to happen.
What was the irony relating to Jefferson about the Louisiana purchase?
He believed in a strict interpretation of the constitution but in this case he conveniently took a loose interpretation.
What were Louis and Clark trying to do?
Look for a waterway to the Pacific Ocean (there is not).
What did Louis and Clark do?
They documented plant and animal life, discovered Native American groups.
Who was Sacagawea?
The woman who (while pregnant) accompanied Louis and Clark on their expedition, saved their lives by acting as an interpreter during a conflict with Native Americans.
What were the Barbary Pirates?
A group of pirates based in Lybia that would harass U.S. ships.
What did the U.S. do in response to the Barbary Pirates?
They paid them off in return for their "protection"
What did Jefferson do with the Barbary Pirates?
He refused to pay them more and went to war with them.
What happened with the Barbary War?
The U.S. lost and ended up going back to paying them.
What was the Embargo Act?
France and England were at war and neither wanted the other to trade with the U.S.. As a response, Jefferson decides it would be a fantastic idea to stop trade with the entire world. This does not work.
What were the Non-Intercourse Acts?
Acts created as a response to the Embargo Act that prohibited trade with France and England instead of the entire world.
What was Macon's Bill No. 2?
Replaced the Non-Intercourse Act. France agrees, England doe not. Ties suffer with England (1812 foreshadowing) and improve with France.
What caused the war of 1812?
British ships kept impressing American sailors, Macon's Bill No. 2, Chesapeake Leopard Affair, Embargo Act, War Hawks.
What was the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair?
While trying to impress American sailors, the British "accidentally" fired on the USS Chesapeake.
Who were some notable War Hawks?
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Really wanted to go to war. Ended up becoming senators/representatives later on.
What were some problems with the War of 1812?
The U.S. was not prepared well. Totally outnumbered in compared to the British. America did not want to start a draft, financial instability, certain parts of the country didn't want to go to war (NE).
What was the Hartford Convention?
Took place at the end of the War of 1812. Basically New England didn't like the war and wanted to continue to trade undisturbed. They were considering seceding.
What affect did the Hartford Convention have?
The rest of the union was not happy, especially since it was mainly organized by Federalists, it caused the decline in the party's popularity.
What was the Treaty of Ghent?
Ended the War of 1812. Just said it was a draw.
What was the battle of New Orleans?
Andrew Jackson defeated British troops and became a famous war hero after the War of 1812 had ended but word hadn't reached them yet.
What was the 2nd Great Awakening?
Another attempt to bring people back to their faith. Travelling preachers became popular.
What were some of the causes of the 2nd Great Awakening?
The Enlightenment caused a lot of questioning and distancing from religion, women were there to witness these travelling preachers which contributed to the Awakening.
What was a result of the 2nd Great Awakening?
More religious sects formed in the U.S.
Who was John Calhoun and what was his involvement in the Federal Government?
He wanted to use federal funds for 'internal improvements', proposed a bill that passed congress, was vetoed by Madison.
Who pays for internal improvements?
Usually the states, unless it's an interstate kind of thing.
What was internal migration?
People began moving west in search of more fertile land. Expansion from the south to the deep south.
What was the Era of Good Feelings?
The response to the country not loosing the War of 1812, an uptick in nationalism, a growing economy, the decline of the federalist party which led to less opposition in congress, and the Goodwill Tour where James Monroe "met the people".
What was the Adams-Onis Treaty?
The U.S. purchased Florida from Spain.
What were the Seminole Wars?
Andrew Jackson's conflict with Native Americans in the south which led to the Adams-Onis treaty.
What was the Missouri Compromise?
It kept the number of slave states and free states the same, keeping an even number in Congress
What is the 30o 60" line?
The border line that was made for the borders in the Missouri Compromise. All states below the southern border of Missouri were slave states, all to the north were free states (with the exception of Missouri which was a slave state.)
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
Monroe's message stating that European countries should not re-colonize Central and South American countries that had just declared independence. Europe stays in their hemisphere, America stays in theirs.
What did Andrew Jackson claim to be?
The president of the common man.
What was different about Andrew Jackson than previous presidents?
He was not well educated, not born wealthy, and was not from VA or MA.
What is Jacksonian Democracy?
More citizen participation in government (more white men were allowed to vote), voters choose their state's presidential electors, spoils system, campaigning, and third parties.
What was the spoils system?
Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs
What were some new parties that emerged during the Jackson era?
Whigs and Republicans
What happened in the 1824 election?
Multiple people were running, none of the candidates got enough electoral votes to win, Jackson won the popular vote by a long run but it was up to the house to choose, they chose John Quincy Adams instead.
What was the controversy over the 1824 election?
Jackson claimed that Henry Clay, the house speaker at the time, formed a quid pro quo (idk if that's grammatically correct) with Madison so that he'd get the presidency in exchange for Henry Clay to be appointed secretary of the state.
What did Jackson call the controversy over the 1824 election?
A corrupt bargain (there was no evidence to prove this took place though).
What happened during the election of 1828?
It was a dirty election. Both sides were finding controversy relating to the other.
What did John Quincy Adams find against Jackson in the election of 1828?
It was discovered that Jackson's wife, who had been divorced before her marriage with Jackson, had technically gotten married with Jackson before her divorce had been finalized which was technically a crime. She was unaware of this but she faced major controversy from Adams' followers.
What was the "Jackson Coalition"?
Jackson's supporters who were made up of slave owners, people on the frontier, state politicians who would benefit from the spoils system, and immigrants in cities.
What was Jackson's view of the common man?
He had more trust in the common man than the presidents before him.
What was Jackson's view on establishments?
He despised monopolies and disliked Eastern establishments.
What was the "King Mob"
Jackson allowed the locals into the white house after his inauguration and they trashed the place.
Was the Peggy Eaton Affair important?
Apparently not.
What was the Webster Hayne Debate?
The debate if politicians in congress should be loyal to the states or country as a whole first. John Calhoun was on the state's side. Webster and Jackson were on the country's side.
What was the Nullification Issue?
Virginia and Kentucky wanted to nullify the tariffs placed on their goods because of their negative affects on their economies.
What was the Tariff Conflict?
Andrew Jackson threatened Virginia and Kentucky with the U.S. army if they nullified the tariffs.
What was Clay's compromise?
Henry Clay proposed that the tariffs in the tariff conflict stay but be lowered slowly over the course of a few years to appease Jackson and the states.
What was the Indian Removal Act?
Forced Native Americans to leave their land and move west.
What was Cherokee Nation v. Georgia?
A case that ruled the Cherokee Nation as a "Domestic dependent nation"
What Was Worchester vs. Georgia?
A supreme court case that ruled in favor of the Cherokee nation against the Indian Removal Act stating it was unconstitutional.
What was Jackson's response to Worchester v Georgia?
He ignored it and went through with the Indian Removal Act anyway. ("John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.")
What was the Trail of Tears?
The forceful relocation of Native Americans west to the Oklahoma Territory.
What was the point of renewing the charter of the national bank?
Allowed the government to reassess the bank.
What did Jackson do about the National Bank?
He despised it so he removed all of the money from the bank and gave it to "pet banks".
What were pet banks?
State banks chosen by President Jackson to be depositories of federal money.
What happened during the extension of the 2nd National Bank?
Jackson vetoed it and the charter expired so the National Bank is gone.
What was the Marysville Road Bill?
A bill vetoed by President Jackson allowing the government to be a part of the construction of a road linking Lexington to Maysville.
What was Henry Clay's financial plan?
Internal improvements would be payed for by the federal government, in favor of the national bank, tariffs.
What was the Specie Circular?
An order made by Jackson saying anyone who would buy land in the west must do so in "hard money" (gold or silver.)
What was the reasoning behind the Specie Circular?
Rich people would buy land in the West and sell it a few years later at a large profit. So large portions of land were not being used for anything.
What was the result of the Specie Circular?
The land lost value because no one wanted to buy it.
What was the Panic of 1837 and what caused it?
A financial panic caused by the Specie Circular and loss of the National Bank. Unemployment rose, land sales plummeted, banknotes lost value, and credit was not available.
Who was Martin Van Buren and what did he do?
Took over the presidency after Jackson, wasn't able to do anything because of the Panic of 1837. Unfortunate timing.