It is the rational, abstract, and methodical
consideration of reality as a whole or of fundamental
dimensions of human existence and experience.
An Athenian philosopher during the Classical
period of Ancient Greece. He was the student of Socrates and
the teacher of Aristotle. He authored a lot of philosophical
works. He often used stories, metaphors and allegories to
explain certain truths about politics, nature of man and our
Symbolize the Key Components of Tripartite Soul
Charioteer, White horse, and Dark Horse
what drives rational?
brain what body part is associated with rational?
truth and wisdom
what does rational love?
what is rational's virtues?
what is rational's vice?
what drives spirited?
what body part is associated with spirited?
honor and victory
what does the spirited love?
what is the spirited's virtues?
what is the spirited's vice?
what drives the appetitive?
belly/genitals what body parts are associated with appetitive?
what does the appetitive love?
what is the appetitive's virtue?
what is the appetitive's vice?
soul components highest aims in order
rational, spirited, appetitive
as a charioteer, the logical part must have a sense of _________
vision and purpose
T or F plato did not believe that either of the horses are good or bad in themselves
T : money, honor, and success for instance are not bad in themselves, yet they are tools to use. The challenge is we have to be rational in our decisions.
Our base desires and emotions make great ______. but awful _______
to achieve harmony of the soul...
the logical part of the soul needs to obtain harmony between the spirited part and the appetitive part; understand the nature and desire of his two horses
T or F For Plato the achievement of harmony in our soul is a precursor of pursuing any other endeavor in life
T : We to honor and acknowledge our desires
and aspirations but we always have to learn to think through
our actions and decisions.
what is life according to Plato's allegory of the cave?
like being chained up in a cave forced to watch shadows fleeting across a stone wall
Under which book is the allegory of the cave?
book 7 of the republic
What does the book 7 of the republic tackle?
justice, truth, and beauty
the escaped prisoner
philosophers; those who saw reality
lesser knowledge (compared to the sun); little knowledge
politically, those who twist reality or those who manipulte reality
established beliefs with the little knowledge
established norms; the shell of ignorance
great knowledge; distinguishes lie form reality
path to enlightenment
people are scared of knowing philosophical truths and do not trust philosophers.
what point is Plato trying to get across in the allegory of the cave?
the allegory shows what it's like to be a philosopher as people are comfortable in their ignorance or can even get violent
T or F plato said no to athenian democaracy yes to philosopher kings
which book is connected to the allegory of the cave?
connected to theory of forms
what concept does the theory of forms tackle?
things in the physical world are flawed reflections of ideal forms
what event largely influenced the allegory of the cave?
the death of Socrates (Plato's mentor); executed for "corrupting" the Athenian youth with his ideas
the awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider Society, both today and in the past
who coined the concept of sociological imagination?
C. Wright Mills
who coined the concept of Solidarity of Society?
Solidarity of Society
how society holds together and what ties the individual to the society.
is the social integration of members of a society who have common values and beliefs.
is social integration that arises out of the need of individuals for one another’s services
A social condition that occurs when a society previously common norms and values disappear or disintegrate
______________ Typically causes people lack of belonging and that they are disconnected from their society
A LARGE SOCIAL GROUPING THAT SHARES THE SAME GEOGRAPHICAL TERRITORY AND IS SUBJECT TO THE SAME POLITICAL AUTHORITY AND DOMINANT CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS
What is society composed of?
- The population
- Social Groups and Organizations
- Social Institutions
- Social Systems
- The natural and technological environment
the people living in society which can be characterized from different perspectives such as territory, sex and gender aggregation, age many more.
Social Groups and Organizations
persons living in society may be classified into different social groupings
These are enduring organizations that exert a strong influence on individuals on how to conduct themselves in society.
these are networks of social groups, organizations and social institutions that characterize society in the large scale such as economic, political and cultural systems
The natural and technological environment
These are the natural resources available in each territory and the technological resources available for the use of society
the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
According to linguists Sapir and Whorf, language precedes thoughts because people can conceptualize the world only through language.
_________ a major element of culture. This transmits culture from one generation to another.
Types of Culture
Non-material – Norms, values, beliefs
established standards of behavior maintained by a society
Law – government social control
Mores and Folkways
norms that embody the values and morality of society
norms governing everyday behavior
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning society; can be positive or negative
it is during socialization that an individual learns to become a member of the society s/he lives and learns their culture
why is socialization important?
it is vital for humans because isolation is dangerous to human's mental health
nature vs. nurture
________ is what people think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. _________ is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception
Harlow Attachment Theory
demonstrated the importance of social contact with the mother and peers for the proper social development of infant monkeys; comfort monkey, nutrition monkey, wired mothers
example of feral children; help us understand the significance of socialization
very devastating, yet very helpful in letting us understand the significance of socialization
Importance of socialization
Enter a network of social relationships
Learn norms and culture
Learn goals and ambitions of the culture
Learn technological skills needed for culture
Learn about the territory of the culture
It is a key part of individual development
Agents of Socialization
Family, School, Peer Group, Church, Mass Media, Workplace
Who coined the Psychoanalysis theory?
a theory that explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality
What did Sigmund Freud use as an analogy for our minds?
repression brought about by trauma
- The part of the personality that deals with the demands of reality
- Executive mediating between id impulses and superego inhibitions
- Helps us behave in ways that are both realisticand acceptable
- Operates mainly at conscious level but also at preconscious level
- The final aspect of personality to emerge
- Contains our ideals and values, and morals
- Incorporated from parents and society
- Becoming a person's conscience
- Operates mostly at a preconscious level
- The first key elements of personality to emerge
- Contains all the unconscious, basic, and primal urges
- Seeking immediate gratification
- Irrational and impulsive
- Operates at the unconscious level
Who coined the Cognitive Theory?
The Cognitive Theory
attempts to explain human behavior by understanding your thought processes
birth -2 years
- Differentiates self from objects
- Learning through senses
- Self as agent of action
- Achieves object permanence
2 -7 years
Learns to use language
Represents the world symbolically
Egocentric: difficulty taking other's
Classifies object by single feature
7 -11 years
Conservation of quantity/appearance
Slightly understand speed, size, number
Classifies objects according to several
11 years up
Can think logically about abstract
Concerned with hypothetical, future, and
Has problem-solving skills
Who coined the Moral Development Theory?
Moral Development Theory
a theory that focuses on how people develop morality and moral reasoning
First Level Moral Development Theory
(right vs wrong)
Step 1 (Infancy)
if punishable then wrong
Step 2 (Pre-school)
right way is rewarded
Second Level Moral Development Theory
Law and Order
(views of others matter)
Step 3 (School Age)
behave in ways that conform to good behavior
Step 4 (School Age)
obedience to authority and doing one's duty
Third Level Moral Development Theory
(abstract notions of
Step 5 (Teens)
morality vs. law; rules can be broken smtms
Step 6 (Adulthood)
takes account of likely views of everyone affected by a moral decision
Who coined the psychosocial theory?
personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood.
experienced by a person in every stage which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Infancy from birth to 18 months
If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Toddler from 18 months to 3 years
Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschool years from 3 to 5
Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
Industry vs. Inferiority
Middle school years from 6 to 11
Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Teen years from 12 to 18
Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity. Or they become confused about who they are
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adult years from 18 to 40
Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle age from 40 to 65
The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
Integrity vs. Despair
Older adulthood from 65 to death
When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
Charles Horton Cooley
Coined the The Looking Glass Self Theory
The looking glass of self theory
If other people's perception of you is the reflection of your identtity, the who are you?
"A person's thoughts and feelings about themselves are formed based on the responses of others and their perception of how the people around them see them"
This theory helps us develop our self-esteem
We imagine how we appear to those around us
We interpret other's reaction
We develop a self-concept
The three elements of the Looking Glass Self Theory
Coined the presentation of self theory
Presentation of Self Theory
Goffman argues that the self is simply nothing more than "Self-Presentations and "Role Playing"
Social life is a theater that perform in the Front and Back Regions of Self
concept depicting social life as a theater
All the activity of an individual in front of set of observer or audience
This includes the scenery, props and location
physical appearance of the person outside appearance
Refers to how individuals would act out their role and functio
This is where the actor plays his role for others to see
Where the individual can act their true self
act of changing your behaviors in order to fit in or go along with the people around you
compliance, identification, internalization or acceptance
Types of Conformity
Wish to evade punishments like being rejected or ridiculed or even gain rewards.
Groups make barriers to independent behavior
why do we conform?
actions that violate social norms
Deviance is relative
What is acceptable in one place or time may not be acceptable in another.
Deviant behavior exists because there is the agreement with social norms requiring bonds between people and society
Stigma happens when a member of society attaches a status to a person usually disapproving their deviant act
Robert K. Merton
coined the strain theory of deviance
Deviant acts will most likely happen to a person when a gap exists between his cultural goals and his ability to meet them
Aspirations derived from the cultural values of a society
The socially acceptable ways to achieve our goals
The people in this quadrant is not considered deviant
These people accepts the cultural goals of the society but uses illegal means to achieve them
These people rejects cultural goals of the society but continue to follow the legitimate means of society
These people reject both cultural goals and institutional means
These people not only rejects cultural goals and institutional means; instead they want to change them