ISS unit 3

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articles of confederation
first constitution of 1781 by thirteen colonies - symbol of union by giving gov no power over states
successess of a of c
created treaty of alliance with france - finacial support in war with britain negotiated end american rev. in treaty of paris - end of 7 year war passed nw ordiance of 1787 - nw territories own gov., outlawed slavery there
weaknessess of a of c
no power to coin money no power over foreign commerce no power to tax no national court system to protect rights no exec. branch to enforce laws amendments only made with support of all 13 states
shays rebellion
soldiers had no money and farmers had too much debt from loans started with peaceful conventions but lead to attacks attacked and shut down courts sam adams passed laws to kill and unfairly imprison rebels rebellion beat by militia fed. gov counldn't get involved bc a state matter
the constitution
replaced a of c in 1789 6 articles and themes of supreme law
executive branch
apply and enforce laws
legislative branch
make laws
judicial branch
interpret laws
theme - limited gov.
gov. whose power is defined and limited by constitution
theme - republicanism
citizens elect reps. to govern
theme - checks and balances
branches limit eachother to avoid abuse of power
theme - federalism
power divided between national and state govs.
theme - separation of powers
divisions of power between branches
theme -popular sovereignity
ultimate power resides in people
great compromise
house of reps is based on the population of a state
3/5 compromise
slaves count for 3/5 persons to determine rep. in house
intro to constitution starts with we the people power lies in people create and keep equality and peace give security and best interest for the public protect rights for citizens keep order and everyone follow the laws
bicameral legislature (2 systems)
powers delegated to congress
money war justice regulations foriegn relations constitution changes commerce
collect taxes borrow decide print (new currency or increase money supply)
how to spend declare
set up fed. courts impeach pres. or officals
set up standards of measures admit new states and territories pass immigration laws
foriegn relations
deal with foriegn treaties
constitution changes
propose amendments to constitution
control business between states control trade with other countries
powers forbidden to congress
cannot ex post facto law cannot pass bill of attainer cannot suspend writ of habeas corpus cannot grant title of nobility
ex post facto law
makes an act illegal and applies it to people who have done it before passed
bill of attainder
law that punishes without a trial
writ of habeas corupus
protects people from illegal, unfair imprisonment
how many in house
term in house
2 years
house age and citizenship
25 years old and 7 years
duties of house
introduce bills resolve bills serve committees impeach feds. offc. elect pres if electoral college tie
how many senate
100 2 from each state
term in senate
6 years
senate age and citizenship
30 years old and 9 years
duties of senate
confirm pres appointments adivse and consent to ratify treaties tries impeachment cases helps pass bills (majority vote) veto pres. veto on bill (2/3 vote)
having two branches
process of law passing
proposal - rep writes bill with support from other reps intro - bill assigned a number and read aloud on house floor committee report - bill sent to committee for review floor debate - house reps debate and amend bill vote - bill is read again and reps vote hand off - bill sent to senate and debate amend and vote compromise - house and senate make conference committee workout compromise bill another vote - house and senate vote on compromise bill president - bill goes to pres, they can sign, ignore, or veto (if veto senate can vote 2/3 to make law)
leader of house
speaker of house - nancy pelosi
leader of senate
vice pres - kamala harris
pres of senate
patrick leahy
charge of wrong doing - intiates trial guilty - removed or barred from office
pres term
4 years (2 time election)
pres age and requirements
35 years old born in us live in us 14 years before election
duties of pres
sign or veto laws commander in chief of military recognize other countries make treaties (senate approve) appoint sc justices (senate approve) appoint cabinet members
electoral college
538 electors, divided amongst states electors reflect amount of reps and senate of state each elector casts one vote for pres and vice pres canidate who has 270 or more votes wins
issues with electoral college
winner of popular vote is not guaranteed presidency electors do not have to vote in accord with popular vote any election might be decided in house overepresents small states
executive order
something the president wants to highlight in society
3 levels of fed. court system
highest is sc (1 court) court of appeals (13 circuits - 12 regional and 1 for fed. circuit) district courts (94 districts, hear crime and dispute cases)
how many sc judges
9 justices
leader of sc
chief justice - John G. Roberts Jr.
judicial review
ability of sc to oppose any state or fed. laws approved by house or senate
madison vs marbury
adams appoints justices before his term ends to keep federalist power (john marshall - chief justice) senate approves and marshall is sent to deliver commissions (doesn't deliver 4 including marbury) jefferson and secretarty of state madison ignore appointments marbury goes to sc and petitions writ of mandamus marshall says marbury's arguement goes against constitution judicial review is made
how does supreme court work
decides if laws congress passed are in conflict with constitution hears appeals from lower courts to clear up meaning of laws can overturn decisions made by lower courts
fed. court of appeals
hears cases on appeals with no new trials or juries decides if decision made by district courts was right can overturn lower courts decision decisions are final unless case is appealed to sc 3 judges
justice gorsuch story
scalia dies suddenly during obama obama selects garland to replace senate waits out clock trump appoints gorsuch
justice kavanaugh story
kennedy retires trump appoints kavanaugh allegations of sexual harrasment during senate hearings
justice barret coney
ginsburg dies trump appoints and approves barret coney 12 days before term ends
cabinet members
people appointed by pres to be secretaries of different systems
dep examples
treasury - printing money, taxes, domestic and international finacial policies, pay bills of us defense - oversees all armed forces labor - protects rights of workers like wages, benefits, safety
if pres dies who assumes
vice, speaker of house, pres of senate, sec of state, sec of treasury