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hist 1A

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42 Terms
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Neolithic Revolution
agriculture + domestication of animals + formation of villages ~10,000 b.c. in the fertile crescent wide scale transitional from hunter-gatherer to settlements
fertile crescent
reason why civilization began because of fertile soils (agriculture) mesopotamia (4th millennium bc) Persian Gulf to Mediterranean to Egypt
Ur
one of the first cities (among uruk and lagash) sumer mudbrick structures - river mud city-states agriculture around city walls - irrigation 3800 b.c. - 500 b.c.
ut-napishtim
survived the great flood and became immortal (wife granted immortality too) told gilgamesh about the immortality plant equivalent of noah
gilgamesh
hero in the epic of gilgamesh possibly a real king king of uruk ~2700 b.c. built massive walls around city
enkidu
~2700 b.c. created by the gods to put gilgamesh in his place opposite of gilgamesh
sargon of akkad
2334-2279 first recorded conqueror from semetic-speaking people of the north his mother, a priestess, placed him in a wicker basket and left him to float downstream where he was rescued created an empire that stretched as far north as anatolia and east as the iranian plateau
hammurabi
1792-1750 b.c. king of babylon code of hammurabi knew pythagorean theorem and charted venus
rosetta stone
196 bc (made) 1799 napoleon bonaparte found it 1801 english took rosetta stone 1814 used to make a breakthrough in egyptian writing A decree of Ptolemy V generosity and devoutness Greek, hieroglyphic, demotic script
narmer-menes
unified egypt ~3100 b.c. narmer palette had him wearing the crown of upper egypt on one side, lower egypt on the other palette originally meant to grind up ceremonial eyeliner hierarchical scale
manetho
egyption priest compiled a list of dynasties in 280 b.c. on the orders of ptolemy ii thirty dynasties from overthrow of persia to alexander the great in 332 b.c. messed up seventh dynasty never existed
zoser - iii
first king of the old kingdom (3rd dynasty) ca 2685 bc oversaw the building of the step pyramid
imhotep
one of zoser's advisors trusted with the supervision of the building of the royal tomb architect for step-pyramid - ~2650 b.c. later deified as the son of ptah, the god of craftsmen
great pyramids at giza
built in dynasty iv by khufu (built the largest), chephren, menkaure 2550-2490 bc
ra/amun-ra
chief of egyption gods used to be amun and ra amun - god who created the universe ra - god of the sun and light, who traveled across the sky every day in a burning boat combined around middle kingdom
ma'at
right, order, justice antithesis of chaos, integral duty of pharaoh if ruled in accordance, prosperity
ammenemes/amenemhat i - xii
1938-1908 bce xii dynasty was a commoner who had risen to the post of king's vizier royal power consolidated heart of middle kingdom uneasy peace w asiatic and nubia bc of his fortification walls kinda friendly set a new tradition of installing his son as co-regent
sinuhe
servant to royal harem fled egypt after amenemhat i death (1908) was a strong warrior and was given a title wife and tribe came back to egypt and was awarded with a pyramid and riches
"asiatics" (aamw)
people of the near east/modern middle east
nubia
conquered by egypt in sesotris ii 1878-1841 sesotris iii built 7 fortifications, banned nubian travel to egypt, but was still worshipped in nubia important resource for egypt
sesostris iii
1836-1800 bc limited nubian travel boundary stone built seven forts extended domain into nubia still worshipped in nubia
hyksos
dynasty 15-16 hyksos ruled (1638-1530) probably originated in modern day israel collaborated with egypt during rule called themselves sons of ra brought use of horses and chariots to the egyptians
ahmose i
1550-1525 kamose's successor returned unity and stability to egypt entered the delta, took memphis, isolated avaris from palestine so he could capture it secured asian border, restored egyption control over nubia founder of xviii new palaces constructed at avaris, notable for minoan frescoes
hatshepsut
1473-1458 niece of amenhotep i and daughter of thutmose i married thutmose ii, child by concubine (thutmose iii) thutmose ii died > hatshepsut co-regent to the kid took absolute power for herself bc daughter of thutmose i defined her image carefully female in some representations "She-horus" male in others more conventional settings (i.e. temple reliefs) fake beard devine ancestry successful and stable reign never used army
tuthmosis iii
1458-1425 son of thutmose ii and hatshepsut battle of megiddo took armies through a mountain pass re-established control over palestine took on the mitanni, crossed the euphrates forceful and direct exploitation of nubia
amenhotep iv/akhenaten - xviii
1364-1335 Tried to switch religion to atenism Only he and his family worshipped aten, everyone else worships him Aten is the one and only God Atenism died with Amenhotep Religious persecution of those who did not convert
sea peoples
1191 BC defeated by ramses iii very problematic identity unknown mix of mycenaean greeks etruscans sicilians various mediterranean
ten commandments
Forms covenant between God and followers Dictates that there are other Gods, just that Yahweh is the primary God Serve as laws
covenant code
absolute and conditional laws second law code given to moses by god social and civil law
abraham
Came from Ur, discovered God in Harran (Northern Mesopotamia) Leaves his own nation of Ur because God told him so to found his own nation.
moses
led the jews out of egypt and across the sinai desert to canaan exodus given the ten commandments jewish prophet
philistines
Early opponents of Israel Part of the Peoples of the Sea Known as Palestime
saul
ruled from 1020-1000 first king of the israelites rival of david revolt and unity
david
Reigned from 1000-970 Originally Shepherd, fought Goliath and won, Phillistine Army flees, he gets famous and turns into a King Moved ark of covenant into a tent Expanded Kingdom to South Syria
solomon
970-930 built the ark of the covenant a temple the temple of judaism spiritual center consolidated and fortified the empire built by david cemented relations dynastic marriages tolerance for other religions centralized administration building program kinda oppressive forced labor + taxes
ark of the covenant
Wooden Chest (ark) with the original ten comandments written on stone within
josiah's purge
about 640-609 bc wiped out all of the pagan cults that had formed purged idolatry renewal of the covenant restoration of passover
babylonian captivity
(586 - 539) forced detention following babylonian conquest new image of yahweh could abandon to suffering only through admission of guilt and acceptance of punishment can relationship be restored early hebrew scriptures consolidated ended when persia conquered babylon and jerusalem was restored
ashur
city center for southern mesopotamia to buy precious metals led by heads of merchant families sacked in 614 god head of assyrian pantheon wind
shamshi-adad i
(1813 - 1781) conquered syria, anatolia, and upper mesopotamia short-lived kingdom of upper mesopotamia "king of the universe" With him, Kings stopped acting as God's servant
tukulti-ninurta i
(1244 - 1208) king during middle empire toppled the kingdom of the hittites, crushed the nairi people of anatolia, and enriched the palace treasury conquest of babylon biblical king nimrod
ashurbanipal
(668 - 630) scholar founder of one of the first libraries in a form recognizable today omens, religious texts, dictionaries conquest of egypt