AP Psych Test: Dev Psych

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Developmental psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan
Germinal stage
first 2 weeks Conception, implantation, formation of placenta Fewer than half survive beyond this stage
Embryonic stage
2 weeks - 2 months Formation of vital organs and systems
Fetal stage
2 months - birth Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply Age of viability - after 25 weeks (can exist outside of womb)
Maternal nutrition
Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology
Maternal drug use
Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs Fetal alcohol syndrome causes face misproportions
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo and fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Grasping reflex
Babies grab something in their palm like a finger
Rooting reflex
Baby will turn towards your hand when you brush their cheek or mouth Helps babies find bottle or nipple for feeding
Cephalocaudal trend
head to foot development babies can move their heads before their feet
Proximodistal trend
center to outward babies can move their limbs before developing fine motor skills
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
longnitudinal study
study the same subject/group over time Pro: Allows you to avoid confounding factors Con: people may drop out, takes longer
Cross-sectional study
studying different groups of different ages/characteristics at the same time Pro: Immediate and easier Con: Possible confounding variables Generational differences Events that happen in people’s lives Nature vs nurture
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
What did Jean Piaget study?
Cognitive development
Sensorimotor stage
infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities, object permanence 0-2 years
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
symbolic thinking, use language to express concepts Imagination and intuition is strong, but abstract/logical thought is difficult Conservation developed 2-7 years
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
concrete operational stage
children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. 7-11 years
formal operational stage
people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. 11-adulthood
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
What did Erik Erikson study?
Psychosocial development
Erikson Stage 1
Trust vs mistrust Is my world predictable and supportive? 0-1 years
Erikson Stage 2
Autonomy vs shame and doubt Can I do things myself or do I rely on others? 2-3 years
Erikson stage 3
Initiative vs guilt Am I good or bad? 4-6 years
Erikson stage 4
Industry vs inferiority Am I competent or worthless? 6-puberty
Erikson stage 5
Identity vs confusion Who am I and where am I going? adolescence
Erikson stage 6
Intimacy vs isolation Do I share my life or live alone? early adulthood
Erikson stage 7
generativity vs self-absorption Will I produce something of value? middle adulthood
erikson stage 8
Integrity vs despair Have I lived a full life? Late adulthood
What did Kohlberg study?
Moral development
Preconventional level
Right vs wrong determined by what is punished or rewarded
Preconventional 2 stages
Stage 1: obedience and punishment Right vs wrong determined by what you get away with Stage 2: Instrumental relativists Right vs wrong determined by reward
Conventional level
Right vs wrong determined by the approval of other people/social systems
Conventional 2 stages
Stage 3: Good boy/nice girl Right vs wrong determined by approval of others Stage 4: Authority Right vs wrong determined by infallible laws
Postconventional level
Stage 5: Social contract Right vs wrong determined by fallible laws, flexible Stage 6: Universal ethics principle Right vs wrong determined by personal abstract principles using many perspectives
What did freud study?
psychosexual development
Oral stage
Pleasure focused on mouth First 18 months Oral Receptive: oral fixation leads to biting and smoking, passive, needy, sensitive Oral aggressive: oral fixation leads to verbal aggression
Anal stage
Pleasure focused on functions of elimination 1.5-3 years Anal retentive: strict toilet training, obsessively clean, controlling, possessive Anal expulsive: lax toilet training, leads to poor organization and possibly aggression
Phallic stage
Pleasure focused on genitals 3-6 years Issues can lead to vanity and impulsiveness
Latency stage
Sexual thoughts repressed, child focuses on social and intellectual skills 6-puberty Issues can lead to immaturity and relationship issues
Genital stage
Sexual desires are renewed, seeks relationships with others puberty-adulthood Issues can lead to self-obsessiveness
Authortatian parenting
High control with little warmth, no discussions Aim to cultivate hard work, respect, and obedience Produces overachievers
Authoritative/democratic parenting
High control and high warmth Set rules but allow discussions Best style in theory
Permissive parenting
Warmth but little control Less rules and punishments Children struggle with independence
Neglectful parenting
No warmth or control May meet physical needs but nothing else Children struggle with basically everything
When puberty begins
Primary sex characteristics
Reproductive organs + genitalia
Secondary sex characteristics
Traits that develop at puberty Examples: breasts, menarche, voice changes, body shape
First occurrence of menstruation Early menarche leads to more distress and emotional difficulty with transition to adolescence
First occurrence of sperm production Late spermarche leads to distress and emotional difficulty with transition to adolescence
Adolescence neural changes
Increasing myelinization (faster connections) Synaptic pruning (reshaping neurons) Changes in prefrontal cortex (decision making)
What did James Marcia study?
Identity statuses
Identity diffusion
Absence of struggle for identity with no obvious concern about it
Identity Foreclosure
Unquestioning adoption of parental or societal value
Identity Moratorium
Actively struggling for a sense of identity
Identity acheivement
Successful achievement of a sense of identity
Fluid intelligence
Ability to reason, learn, think abstracly and solve problems Decreases with age
Crystallized intelligence
Prior learning and past experiences, based on facts Increases with age
the time of natural cessation of menstruation Estrogen decreases