Honors US History Chapter 7 Test for 12/7/22

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Wilmot Proviso
proposed by David Wilmot (PA-Dem.) in 1846 to be added to a bill concerning Mexico. It stated that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of the territory that was acquired from Mexico
Compromise of 1850
Proposed by Henry Clay: - California admitted as a free state - People of the NM & UT use popular sovereignty - Stricter fugitive slave act: fines or imprisonment - Slaves remained in Washington D.C. but the trade was banned there
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slave owners
Underground Railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Harriet Tubman
American abolitionist from Maryland who was an escaped slave who helped over 300 slaves reach the north
Attack on Charles Sumner
Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets beaten by Preston Brooks' cane
Dred Scott v. Sanford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated slaves were not citizens: slaves were property no matter where they were living and the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
John Brown
self-proclaimed antislavery messiah who led his men, including 4 sons, to a pro-slavery settlement on the Pottawatomie Creek. He dragged 5 men from their beds & murdered them, splitting open their skulls
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. John C. Breckinridge was the Democratic choice. As a result, the South no longer felt like it had a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Advantages/Disadvantages of North & South
North: -rail roads - manufacturing industry - more population South: - strong generals - knew the land - plantation industry - great military experience
Winfield Scott and the Anaconda Plan
a plan for the Civil War proposed by Winfield Scott who was Union general-in-chief. It emphasized the blockade of Southern ports and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the south in two.
Border States importance for Families
siblings fighting siblings
Start Date of the Civil War
April 12, 1861
End Date of the Civil War
April 9, 1865
The first Battle of Bull Run
first major battle of the Civil War
David Farragut
Union naval commander who captured New Orleans
Peninsula Campaign (1862)
Union's General George McClellan failed to seize Richmond, the Confederate Capital; Confederate victory made possible by the leadership of General Robert E. Lee
Lincoln & McClellan's relationship
Lincoln and McClellan constantly clashed as McClellan continually ignored Lincoln's orders
Lincoln's goal throughout the Civil War
to preserve and keep the Union together
Emancipation Proclamation
declared that all slaves in the Confederate states would be free
Massachusetts 54th Regiment
First black regiment in the US Armed Forces. Earned a place in history because of their Fort Wagner, where they lost most of their men.
Northern Democrats who favored peace with the South and opposed abolition
Battle of Fredericksburg
The battle was fought on the banks of the Rappahannock River. The Union, led by Major General Ambrose Burnside, was defeated and lost 12,000 men. General Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, was the Confederate general who led in the defeat.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North. Robert E. Lee fought against George Meade of the Union. The battle took place July 1-3, 1863.
Importance of Gettysburg and Vicksburg
The Battle of Gettysburg ended the Confederates' last major invasion of the North and is viewed by some as the war's turning point. The Confederate loss of Vicksburg was perhaps more important because it opened the way for the North to seize control of the entire Mississippi River, cutting the Confederacy in half.
Greatest killer of the Civil War
Appomattox Court House
famous site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Matthew Brady
Irish-American photographer who documented the American Civil War
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
14th Amendment
declares that anyone born in the U.S. is a citizen and everyone is given equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
all men can vote
Land Grant College Act of 1862
provided thousands of acres of federal land to each state to build Agricultural and Mechanical universities
Gilded Age
the reconstruction era following the Civil War
Military Strategy of North & South
Invade, occupy, and subjugate the south. The south was to wear down the north's will to win. In the latter half of the war, the North had to go in and use total war and break their will to stay involved. The South's later strategy was to last to the Election of 1864.
Union Conscription Law
- All men b/t 20-45 liable for service in the national forces for a term of 3 years - Service could be avoided by payment of $300 or by finding a substitute to enlist for 3 years - Reason the law was passed--volunteer enlistments had dropped to an unacceptable level
Confederate Conscription Laws
- April, 1862—Confederacy passed a draft law requiring 3 years of military service for white men b/t the ages of 18-35 - This automatically extended the service of volunteers for 2 more years - After Antietam—age extended to 45 & then to 50 - Owners of 20 or more slaves were excused from serving - Service could be avoided by payment of $500 or by finding a substitute who was not of draft age to enlist
Significance for key events/battles of the Civil War
Fort Sumter started the war. Antietam was the bloodiest one day battle. Gettysburg was the turning point of the war when the Confederacy realized they couldn't win the war. Hampton Roads was the first battle between two iron-clad ships. Appomattox Court House was the location of the surrendering of the Confederates and Robert E. Lee.