The Chinese dynasty that followed the Tang dynasty, it was smaller but flourished more due to technological advances and smaller amount of land to govern
What is a meritocracy?
A government system in which leaders and officials are selected based on their skill and abilities rather than being born into power- they have to earn it
How was the Chinese imperial bureaucracy a meritocracy?
The civil service exam was open to the lower economic classes as well, so someone who came from a lower economic class could earn a high position through knowledge of Confucian texts
How did the size of the bureaucracy hurt the Song dynasty?
Due to the high wages paid to bureaucrats, the surplus wealth was drained to pay the growing number of officials.
What was the Grand Canal and what effects did it have?
An efficient Chinese waterway transportation system that improved the economy through better trade
What was gunpowder used for and how did it spread?
Guns were created from gunpowder, which spread through trade on the Silk Roads
What food source was used to increase agricultural production in China?
Champa rice allowed agricultural production in more places and more often
What other methods of agricultural production increased success in China?
use of manure as fertilizer, effective irrigation systems, heavy plows
How did an abundance of food affect the Chinese population?
The population increased to about 40% of the world's population
The discovery of what resource contributed to Chinese cast iron production?
coal (black earth)
How did the manufacture of steel affect China?
It was used in agricultural tools, religious artifacts, and architecture (bridges, gates, etc)
What is protoindustrialization?
economic changes where people made more goods than they could sell
How was protoindustrialization different than later industrialization?
Instead of large factories, communal or home based simple equipment was used
What products were manufactured by Chinese artisans?
porcelain, silk, and steel
What maritime navigation advances were used by the Chinese?
compass and paper navigation charts
How did the Song Dynasty carry out public projects?
paid people to do labor instead of requiring it
What was the tributary system used by the Song Dynasty?
surrounding states had to pay tribute to China, which was considered the "Middle Kingdom", to honor its emperor
How did people from tributary states show respect for the Chinese emperor?
performing the kowtow (bow in which head touches floor)
How did population distributions change in China?
Though mostly rural, transition to greater concentration of urban cities
What new social class was created due to bureaucratic expansion in China?
scholar gentry- below aristocracy and made of those educated in Confucian ideals
What 3 classes ranked below the scholar gentry?
farmers, artisans, merchants (merchants ranked lower due to Confucian ideals about hard work and creating things)
What were the lowest Chinese social classes?
peasants and urban poor- Song dynasty offered free aid
What were Confucian beliefs about women?
should be respected but defer to men
What practice was used to constrain the movement of women in China?
foot binding, which was also a sign of status
What system of printing was used by the Chinese? How was it used?
woodblock printing, used to create agricultural pamphlets
How did the use of paper and printing affect access to literature in China?
the literate scholar gentry began to consume more literature- made more well rounded bureaucrats
How did Buddhism come to China? How was it presented to the Chinese?
Came from India, presented through similarities to Daoism
What are the three main branches of Buddhism and their focuses?
Theravada Buddhism: focus on personal spiritual growth and self discipline
Mahayana Buddhism: focus on spiritual growth for all beings and service
Tibetan Buddhism: focus on chanting
What are the main beliefs of Buddhism?
Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
What is a syncretic religion?
religion that blends several beliefs or practices
What was the syncretic form of Buddhism that developed in China?
How did the Tang Dynasty view Buddhism?
not accepted because it was considered a foreign religion, made Daoists and Confucians jealous
How did the Song Dynasty view Buddhism?
tolerated, but promoted Chinese religions such as Daoism or Confucianism
What is filial piety?
duty to respect the male head of family and rulers
What was Neo-Confucianism?
another syncretic system that focused on ethics, combined Daoism and Buddhism with Confucianism
What is sinification?
influence of Chinese culture
How did Chinese culture affect Japan?
Buddhism and Confucianism, woodblock printing, Heian period (able to control interactions more due to separation by water
How did Japanese feudalism work?
daimyo conflicted for control of land while rest of population was rice farmers, samurai fought for daimyo, little social mobility
What was bushido?
samurai code of conduct, included martial arts, frugality
How was Japan governed?
had an emperor and shogun but overwhelmed by regional rivalries, emperor was mostly symbolic
How did Korea respond to Chinese culture?
emulated many aspects of Chinese culture, centralized government, religion, writing system
How did Korea differ from China?
Aristocracy was more powerful, so the meritocracy was never open to lower classes
How did Vietnamese culture differ from Chinese culture?
it focused on the nuclear family, had more gender equality, and scholar bureaucrats were more loyal to the peasants than the emperor
What parts of Chinese culture did the Vietnamese resent?
The idea of polygyny, foot binding, women's status in China
Who were the Mamluks?
Turkic slaves brought to Egypt who were given more upward mobility than most slaves and took control of the government to establish the Mamluk Sultanate, which prospered through trading cotton and sugar
What economy did the Mamluks have?
Cotton and sugar trade
How did the Seljuk Turks challenge the power of the Abbasids?
They expanded across the Middle East and called their leader the sultan, lowering the power of the Abbasid leader
What group was organized to reopen access to holy sites around Jerusalem?
What Central Asian group posed a challenge to the Abbasids?
What change caused the Abbasids to lose economic power?
shifting of trade routes north of Baghdad, which meant that Baghdad was no longer the center of trade
What Islamic caliphate was led by Arabs and Persians?
The Abbasid caliphate
Which Islamic states had their roots in Turkic culture?
Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, and Mughal Empire
How did Islamic scholars preserve earlier works?
translated Greek literature to Arabic, studied mathematics from India, and paper making from China
Who was Nasir al-Din al-Tusi?
Islamic scholar who made contributions to several fields, built an accurate and advanced observatory, and developed the foundations of trigonometry
Who was Ibn Khaldun?
founder of historiography and sociology
Who was 'A'ishah al-Ba'uniyyah?
Sufi mystic and poet who was the biggest female Muslim writer before the 20th century
What is the difference between the main form of Islam and Sufism?
rather than a focus on intellectual discovery, Sufism focused on introspection for discoveries unable to be made through learning
How were Sufis good missionaries?
They adapted Islam to regional religions; in a way, they showed people how to practice Islam without giving up their traditions
How were merchants viewed in Islamic society?
They were more highly respected than in other societies as long as they adhered to certain practices, partly because Muhammad was a merchant
What were Islamic rules about slavery?
Slavery was allowed as long as Muslims and other monotheists (Christians, Jews, etc.) were not enslaved. Many slaves converted to Islam, at which point they were released.
What role did female Islamic slaves have?
They had more freedoms than most women and were given opportunities to make money, eventually buying their freedom
What practices now associated with Islam were present in Central Asia before Muhammad?
The use of hijab for women and skull coverings for men, as well as allowing women to study or read when not in the presence of men
How did Muhammad change the status of women?
ruled that dowries must be paid to the bride, forbade female infanticide, had a wife who was also educated, setting precedent for recognition of women's abilities
How did the status of women in Islam compare to that of women in other religions?
Muslim women had more freedoms and could inherit property, remarry if widowed, initiate divorce in some cases, use birth control, and had protections to testify in court
What Islamic caliphate had power in Spain after losing power in the Middle East?
the Umayyad caliphate
What was the Umayyad capital of Spain?
What was the Battle of Tours?
a battle lost by Islamic forces to the Frankish forces, limiting their expansion into Europe
How did the Umayyads create an environment for success in Cordoba?
had religious tolerance and promoted trade so that goods could enter Europe through Spain
What ships were used for trade with Spain?
dhows, which had long thin hulls that make transport of goods easier
How was al-Andalus a center of learning?
Cordoba had the largest library in the world and was home to many influential scholars such as Ibn Rushd (Averroes)
What is an example of how Muslims, Christians, and Jews influenced each other academically in Spain?
Ibn Rushd's thoughts on Aristotle influenced the Jewish philosopher Maimonides, who influenced Thomas Aquinas, a Christian philosopher
What served to unify South Asia culturally?
How did Southern India's political structure differ from Northern India?
Southern India had more centralization with the Chola Dynasty and the Vijayanagara Empire in comparison to the decentralized Rajput kingdoms of Northern India
What was the first kingdom to rule over Southern India?
What was the second kingdom to rule over Southern India?
How was the Vijayanagara Empire created?
two brothers from the Islamic Delhi Sultanate returned to their religion of birth and established their own kingdom
What states ruled over Northern India after the fall of the Gupta Empire?
How did the geography around India affect invasions?
The Himalayas prevented invasions from the north or east, but mountain passes allowed invasion from the northwest.
How did Islamic presence in Northern India grow?
The first invasions from Muslims into Pakistan had little effect on daily life, but later on, Muslim invaders took riches from places of worship for Hinduism and Buddhism and built mosques on their holy sites
What Islamic state ruled over Northern India?
What two religions' conflicts dominated Northern Indian political history?
Hinduism and Islam
What made it difficult for the Delhi Sultanate to remain in control?
lack of an efficient bureaucracy allowed the Rajput princes to continue to exert influence
What prevented the Delhi Sultanate from expanding southward?
Having to defend against the Mongols and Mughals from the north
What religions dominated South Asia before the arrival of Islam?
Hinduism and some Buddhism
What are the 4 main differences between Islam and Hinduism?
Islam: monotheistic, does not allow visual representations of Allah, only one holy book (the Quran), and all believers considered equal
Hinduism: polytheistic, has many representations of its gods, several holy texts, and a caste system
What is a universalizing religion?
A religion that tries to proselytize, or actively recruit converts
What did Muslims do at first in hopes of getting converts? How did this change?
They initially tried to use force, then relied on those who converted voluntarily
What groups were attracted to Islam?
lower caste Hindus who wanted a better position in life and Buddhists who were disheartened by the lack of organization in their religion
How did societal structure change in South Asia with the arrival of Islam?
It wasn't really affected because Muslims often found a place within the caste system
How did Islam vary itself to gain believers?
It would follow the customs of the state it was in, for example, the gender relations of South Asia confined Islamic women to a separate social sphere just as it was done before their arrival. In SE Asia, where women had more independence, Islamic women were also given more freedom
What intellectual and cultural interactions occurred between South Asia and the Middle East?
shared knowledge such as the sharing of mathematical and astronomical discoveries, Arabic numerals actually came from South Asia
What was architecture like in India?
blended Islamic geometric patterns with Hindu artistic details
What is the Qutub Minar and why was it built?
a large leaning tower constructed over a mosque by the Delhi Sultanate
What new language was developed among South Asian Muslims?
Urdu, which mixed grammar from Hindi with vocabulary from Arabic and some elements of Farsi
What was the Bhakti movement? Why did it appeal to many?
Similar to Sufism of Islam, a mystical Hindu movement that focused on developing a relationship with a specific god. Was popular because it did not discriminate against women or people with low social status
How were Sufis and Bhaktis similar?
both were mystical movements that were also good missionaries due to their ability to adapt their religion to other cultures
How did South Asia interact with SE Asia?
merchants exchanged culture when they came to trade, spread Buddhism and Hinduism to SE Asia
What two sea based kingdoms emerged in SE Asia?
Srivijaya Empire: Hindu kingdom with strong navy, economy based on charging other ships for travel between India and China
Majapahit Kingdom: Buddhist kingdom that also relied on control of sea routes
What were the Sinhala dynasties?
Land based dynasties that were a center for Buddhism and a monastic life, used good irrigation system to boost economy
What was the Khmer Empire? How did its economy work?
Empire with good irrigation and drainage, allowing it agricultural success and better withstanding of monsoons.
What architecture and art were created by the Khmer empire?
At first, many Hindu art and architecture, then after conversions to Buddhism, a growth in Buddhist sculptures and art- created temple of Angkor Wat
What kingdom invaded the Khmer Empire and forced it out?
Who were the first SE Asian converts to Islam? Why did they convert?
local traders that hoped to improve their relations with Muslim merchants
What was the first large scale North American culture?
What was the largest earthen mound built by the Mississippians?
What was the class structure of the Mississipians?
The Great Sun at the top, then priests, nobles, farmers, hunters, merchants, artisans, and slaves (usually prisoners of war)
How does a matrilineal society work?
social standing based on woman's side of the family
What theories are there about the decline of the Mississippian civilization?
environmental extremes causing damage and European diseases
What two groups emerged in today's southwestern United States? What did each group build?
Chaco: stone and clay housing structures
Mesa Verde: multistory homes in cliff sides using sandstone brick
What was the main form of Mayan government?
city-state w/ king and city w/ surrounding territory
What did Mayans fight over?
tribute and captives for human sacrifice
What did Mayan kings claim?
that they were descended from a God and would become part of their ancestor god in death
What were common Mayan citizens required to do?
pay taxes, labor for government, serve in military during war
What are some examples of Mayan innovation?
concept of zero, complex writing system, use of rubber
How was astronomy important to Mayan religion?
It determined the calendar, which was used to make important decisions
Who were the Aztecs?
hunter gatherers that migrated to central Mexico and conquered the surrounding communities
What was Tenochtitlan like?
in the middle of a swamp, used aqueducts, built Great Pyramid, created chinampas/floating gardens
How did the Aztec tribute system work?
conquered people forced to pay tribute of goods, both practical and luxury, and had local rulers stay on as tribute collectors
How did the Aztecs administer their empire?
grouped city states into provinces with warriors at each province's capital, as well as an official to collect tribute
What kind of government did the Aztecs have?
How did the Aztec social structure work?
Great Speaker, nobles, scribes, healers, craftspeople, traders, pochteca, peasants, soldiers
What was the Aztec religion?
complex religion with many deities and rituals, as well as human sacrifice
What role did women have in Aztec society?
made a lot of the goods used for tribute, some worked in other roles, such as noblewomen as scribes
What caused the decline of the Aztec empire?
less technology use, overexpansion, resentment from conquered people made it easier for Spanish to overthrow them
How was the Incan empire created?
Pachacuti conquered tribes around Cuzco, creating the Incan Empire
How was the Incan Empire governed?
4 provinces w/ governor and bureaucracy
What was the mit'a system?
instead of tribute, Incans required to complete labor for the empire
What ideas were the foundation for Incan religion?
royal ancestor veneration and honoring the sun
What was royal ancestor veneration?
dead rulers were mummified and continued to "rule," retained land and possessions
What role did priests have in Incan society?
determined the will of the gods through coca leaves and movement of spiders to diagnose illness, solve crime, etc
What role did animism have in Incan religion?
huaca (elements of physical world) thought to have supernatural powers
What are some examples of Incan achievements?
quipu in mathematics, waru waru, Carpa Nan (large road system)
How did the Incan Empire fall?
Civil war and disease allowed Pizarro's Spanish forces to conquer the Incans easily
What civilizations do historians think link Mesoamerican cultures?
The migration of what people had a large effect on Sub-Saharan Africa?
What kind of government was used by communities in SSA?
kin-based communities (based on familial relationships)
How did population growth affect government in SSA?
caused smaller communities to be less successful, growth in larger kingdoms
What were the Hausa kingdoms?
set of 7 Hausa city states connected through kinship ties, each with a specialty (military, cotton, etc)
How did the Hausa kingdoms organize the economy?
Relied on trans-Saharan trade, also had specialties-western state served as defense with military specialty, others grew cotton
What was Ghana? How did its economy and political system work?
kingdom that traded in gold and ivory and that was led from Koumbi Saleh with a centralized government- king aided by nobles and army that had iron weapons
What was the most powerful trading society that replaced Ghana?
Who was the founding ruler of Mali and how did he improve the economy?
Sundiata, who used Islam to develop relations with other merchants and created a thriving gold trade
Who was Sundiata's nephew?
Mansa Musa, who took a pilgrimage while bringing a lot of gold to show off wealth
What was an identifying feature of Zimbabwe?
architecture- dwellings made of stone
How did Zimbabwe's economy work?
agriculture, trade, and gold- taxed gold transport and thrived in trade through coastal cities
What trade network was Zimbabwe engaged with and how did it affect their culture?
Indian Ocean trade network; formed new language Swahili that blended Bantu and Arabic
How did Zimbabwe protect its capital?
large stone walls
What contributed to the decline of Zimbabwe?
What Christian led kingdom was on an island of Christianity in Africa?
How did religion evolve in Ethiopia?
Because it was the only Christian state in the region, it developed apart from either the Catholic or Orthodox churches and blended local traditional faiths with Christianity
How were communities in SSA organized?
by age (social marker of abilities/role in society), gender, and kinship (members of a clan or community)
How did gender determine roles in SSA society?
Men did activities that required specialization such as tanning leather, women worked in agriculture, food gathering, domestic roles
What role did slavery have in SSA?
had a long history in Africa, owning many people was seen as a sign of status because land could not be owned
What is chattel slavery?
slaves permanent legal property of owner, no way to end slavery, children usually became slaves as well
What is domestic slavery?
slaves did domestic roles and had slightly more rights than chattel slaves
What is debt bondage?
people became slaves to repay debt and could escape slavery by repaying it, though this was rare; unpaid debt inherited by children
What caused the Indian Ocean slave trade?
demand in Middle East for enslaved workers (called zanj in Arabic)
What was the Zanj Rebellion?
successful revolts by Arab slaves that took control of Basra for about 10 years
What role did music have in Sub Saharan African culture?
it was seen as way to communicate with spirit world, usually rhythmically distinct
What purpose did visual arts have in Sub Saharan Africa?
religious sculptures- iron and bronze sculptures of past rulers that were looked to for guidance
Who were the griots?
oral storytellers and historians that knew a lot of a community's history, passed it down through music
Why were griots powerful?
could sing one's success or failure, responsible for preserving the history of a people
Who were the griottes?
women who sang at important events and provided a sense of empowerment in African society for women
How did European feudalism work?
land exchanged for loyalty- monarchs gave land to nobles in exchange for service, nobles gave land to knights, who became vassals of lord and king, land and protection also given to serfs/peasants in exchange for labor and obedience
How was wealth measured according to European feudalism?
by land, not cash
What was the code of chivalry?
set of rules for conduct based on honor, courtesy, and bravery
What was the manorial system?
economic system in which manors were self sufficient, limiting contact with outsiders
Who were serfs and what was their life like?
peasants that were tied to the land and could not do much without the permission of the lord
What was the three field system?
agricultural method of rotating crops
How did European monarchies gain power over the nobility?
by employing a bureaucracy and military entirely loyal to the monarchy
How did the French political system work?
Estates-General was a body that advised the king, made of three estates (clergy, nobility, commoners) but had little power since clergy and nobility were not very invested in the government
Who led the Holy Roman Empire?
What was the lay investiture controversy?
struggle over whether secular officials could appoint religious office
What caused the decline of the Holy Roman Empire?
Thirty Years' War and invasion from Napoleon
Who formed Norman England?
Normans were descendants of the Vikings, Norman leader William the Conqueror invaded England and had a strict feudal system
What limits on the monarch's power were forced by the nobles in England?
the Magna Carta and Parliament
What was the English Parliament?
two houses- House of Lords (clergy and nobility) and House of Commons
What was the Hundred Years' War?
War between England and France in which England only won the port of Calais in France
What were the effects of the Hundred Years' War?
both states had more of a national identity within their soldiers, also gunpowder was used
What split occurred in the church in 1054?
Great Schism (Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church)
What made the Roman Catholic Church so powerful?
their staff were often the only people in a community that could read or write, they also provided a unifying identity in Europe
How did the church influence education and art in Europe?
established the first universities, so most thinkers of the era were Catholics, also influenced art to help serfs understand the Bible
What gave the church power in the feudal system?
could pressure lords by cancelling religious services, causing serfs to revolt
How did Christian monasteries work?
still part of economy, similar to the manors, allowed women to become nuns and exert influence
What motivated the Crusades?
wanted access to and control of the Holy Lands
What was primogeniture and how did it influence the Crusades?
only the first son inherited, so younger nobles were diverted through Crusades
How did politics shape the Crusades?
tensions between church and state, use of spiritual authority to recruit Crusaders, supported by Orthodox Church as well
What happened during the First Crusade?
conquered Jerusalem but later lost control, cultural exchange between Europe and the Middle East promoted
What happened during the Fourth Crusade?
never reached the Levant, instead sacked Constantinople
Who was Marco Polo?
Italian explorer who visited and wrote about the court of Kublai Khan, prompting interest in Asia
How did social classes in Europe change?
growth of a middle class- the bourgeoisie or burghers who were shop owners, craftspeople, etc
What caused population growth and urbanization?
agricultural improvements and commerce
What two factors hampered population growth and urbanization?
the bubonic plague/Black Death, the little ice age that caused decreased agricultural productivity
What role did Jews have in Christian Europe?
moved northward and became moneylenders since Christians could not charge interest on loans to other Christians
What is anti-Semitism? How was it shown in Europe?
anti-Jewish sentiment, Jews expelled from England, France, Spain, and Portugal, ended up moving towards Eastern Europe
What are examples of anti-Muslim sentiment in Europe?
Muslims expelled from Spain, moved SE
How did Jews and Muslims shape European society?
Jews were a bridge between Muslims and Christians, Muslims opened up new ideas and trade to Europe
How did gender roles change in Europe?
women lost power and rights for the most part, some could exert influence religiously
What was the Renaissance?
rebirth of interest in classical Greek and Roman culture
What was humanism?
focus on individuals rather than God
How did the church affect the Southern Renaissance?
supported the Renaissance (ex: Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy)
What are examples of the Renaissance in Northern Europe?
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and art that emphasized human concerns
How was Russia established?
Kievan Rus successful in trade but overtaken by Mongols, who made nobles collect their taxes. As nobles got wealthier, they resisted the Mongols with the leadership of Ivan the Great
How did Islam provide a basis for rulers' legitimacy?
It was a unifying power through shared beliefs and language (Arabic)
How did religion contribute to political organization in Song China?
Confucianism was the basis of the civil service exam, an important part of the meritocracy
What are some examples of non-peaceful contact between Europe and Asia?
Muslims conquering Spain, Christian Crusades, Mongol conquests
What role did nomadic groups play in state building?
Mongol dominance created political stability across Eurasia, while Turkish groups such as the Seljuks and Ottomans also created empires
What role did gender have in societal organization?
mostly patriarchal, with limited opportunities for women to become educated or take leadership roles