Psychology Chapters 1 and 2

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101 Terms
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based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how the elements were related
The idea that knowledge should be obtained through observation
Psychology as a Profession
Applies science to solve practical problems
Psychology as a Science
Research Psychology(science that studies) -behavior -underlying processes
Developmental psychology
How we change along the lifetime (emotionally)
Cognitive psychology
The higher mental functions, how we reason through problems, memory, language development, creativity
Personality psychology
What factors lead a person to have characteristic behaviors, lead to consistency of behaviors (How is it developed? What factors?)
Psychometrics psychology
Statistical analysis, number focused, design and verify tests, tests tests, ex. how to measure self esteem, happiness, depression
Social Psychology
the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole
Experimental Psychology
the branch of psychology that uses experimental methods to study psychological issues (Traditional Psychology)
physiological psychology
the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes (what parts of the brain affect our behaviors?) (Biological Psychology)
Industrial/organizational or IO
Trained to deal with psychological issues within the workplace
Clinical Psychology
Identification and treatment of mental disorders and minor behavioral problems
Counseling Psychology
Focused on everyday problems, marriage, family, work
Educational Psychology
Asks questions like "what should the curriculum be?", "what educational methods should you choose?"
School Psychology
Behavior problems, family problems (very close to counseling, but a separate degree)
Seven Themes: Psychology is
Seven Themes: Theoretical diversity
different psychologists have different theories on human behavior
Seven Themes: Socio-historical context
Psychology is a product of its times ex. ww2 focused on ptsd etc..
Seven Themes: Multiple Causes
We all have multiple influences on us all the time, theres all kinds of reasons for people's behavior
Seven Themes: Cultural Heritage
Behavior is heavily influenced by Cultural Heritage
Seven Themes: Nature and Nurture
Nature: it's all in the genes, Nurture: How were you raised?
Seven Themes: Experiences are subjective
We are all a product of our experiences and expectations, our past influences how we interpret things and what we pay attention to
Physiology (parent psychology)
Gave psychology the scientific method
Philosophy (parent psychology)
Gave psychology the questions
Wilhelm Wundt
1879, first psych lab, argued for study of conciousness
Awareness of the self, Wundt
G. Stanley Hall
1883 first U.S psychology lab
Structuralism founder
Edward Titchner
Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to separate consciousness into basic elements and study the elements
Structuralists used
the careful, systematic self observation of one's own conscious experience
Functionalism founder
William James
Functionalism Definition
Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function of consciousness as a whole, rather than its structure
What did James think of structuralism?
That splitting the consciousness into pieces was flawed, and it was more like a "flow" of thoughts
What book did William James write?
"Principles of Psychology"
Is functionalism practical?
yes, and they though structuralism was impractical
Which of the two branches flocked to the labs?
Which of the two branches were more interested in how people adapt behavior to the demands of the real world?
What is the modern form of functionalism?
Behaviorism and applied psychology
What is the modern form of structuralism?
Who was Sigmund Freud?
A physician who attempted to treat his patients mental disorders
Who created Psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud
Unconscious Self
Thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but still affect behavior
What did Freud think that slips of the tongues were?
That they were true feelings. Freudian Slip
What was the road to the unconscious?
Freud's belief that dreams expressed feelings that the dreamer was unaware of
What did Freud think caused psychological disturbances?
Personal conflicts on the unconscious level
How did Freud make his conclusions?
without the help of data collection or analysis, just by looking at his own patients
Why was Sigmund Freud controversial?
He talked about sexual desires and the development of children and their erotic desires, thought child development stopped at age 5 , and that we are not humans of change.
Who was the founder of behaviorism?
John B. Watson
Behaviorism Definition
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
What psychology group removed consciousness from their study and began to test on animals?
What group was B.F. Skinner a part of?
The radical behaviorists
What were B.F. Skinners most controversial thoughts?
Free will is an illusion, all behavior is governed by external stimuli
Operant Conditioning
behaviors that are followed by good outcomes tend ti be repeated, and behaviors followed by bad outcomes tend to not be repeated
What caused the humanist revolt?
Behaviorists and Freudians theories were thought to be dehumanizing
Why was behaviorism condemned by humanists?
They studied animal behavior, not humans
Why were Freudians condemned by humanists?
They believed behavior is dominated by primal sexual instincts
Humanists thought there were:
Unique human qualities, freedom, personal growth, self direction
Who were Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow?
The most influential humanists
What did Abraham Maslow create?
The pyramid of needs
What's at the bottom tier of the Pyramid of Needs?
Food, sleep, warmth, other basic needs
What's at the middle tier of the Pyramid of Needs?
Safety, belongingness, self esteem
What's at the top tier of the Pyramid of Needs?
Self Actualization
What was the main goal of humanism?
To reach self actualization
When did Psychology return to its roots? What roots?
1950s-1960s, Cognition and Physiology
Cognitive psychology
Decision making, reasoning, problem solving, language, and creativity
Physiological psychology (neuroscience)
Looked at how behavior is influenced by brain function, injuries to the brain, genetics, hormones, neurotransmitters
What are the contemporary views of psychology?
Cultural diversity, Evolutionary psychology, and Positive psychology
Why is Cultural diversity in Psychology important?
studies/experiments used to be exclusively on rich, white young men before the 1980s, now they're much more inclusive More focus on how behavior is the product of cultural experience
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
The study of the adaptive value of behaviors, (why do we do this?) A modern version of functionalism
What is positive psychology? and why is it important
Looks at what kind of experiences in our lives lead to positive outcomes. We used to only look at "what's wrong with us?"
tentative prediction on the relationship between variables
any condition, even, or behavior that can be measured
organized system of ideas that explain a set of observations, must be testable
Operational definition
a precise definition in how the variables are defined in a study will be observed and measured
Naturalistic observation
behavior occurring in its natural environment
What are benefits of survey data collection? What's a disadvantage?
You can collect lots of data easily, adequately test opinion and attitude. People tend to answer in a socially acceptable manner, may not tell the truth.
What are the benefits of standardized tests data collection? What is a disadvantage?
You can generate lots of data and make easy comparisons. There's inevitable cultural bias.
What does a phsyiological measure determine?
What parts of the brain are being used, via FMRI scan
Social Desirability Bias
to answer self questions in a socially approved manner
Descriptive Research Design
Seeks to identify/describe behavior, lowest level/starting point of research
Correlation Research Design
Seeks to predict behavior, identify strength of relationships between 2 or more variables
Experimental Research Design
Seeks to understand behavior, researchers manipulate one variable to discover its effect on another
What are the disadvantages of Experimental research design?
Artificial settings, and ethical problems
What is the biggest advantage of Experimental Research?
you get a cause and effect statement
people who provide the data, try to have the closest to the set of the people we are trying to draw conclusions about
whole set of people we are trying to draw conclusions about
Sampling bias
sample that doesn't accurately reflect the population
Placebo Effect
sometimes people behave in a certain way because they believe they should
Self Report Errors
social desirability bias, some people don't answer questions correctly
Experimental Bias
not fraud, usually unintentional, reason to use double blind experiments
Does science prove things?
no treatment, ex placebo drug
treatment, ex real drug in a drug trial
extraneous variables
anything that may affect subjects behavior, ex age differences between subjects
Deception in Research
sometimes knowing too much skews the results
Animal Research in Psychology
very rarely used, also many complicated restrictions to "protect" the animals
APA Guidelines
Set of ethic rules for human participation in studies
APA: Human participation in research must be:
Voluntary, do no harm, if deception is used, you must debrief them at some point, confidentiality, IRB approved
IRB (institutional review board)
Any institution that receives federal funding must have an ethic review board before anyone is allowed to recruit human subjects for the study