APHUG Unit 3

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122 Terms
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group's learned behaviors, actions, beliefs, objects of nation/social group
long-lot settlement
linear settlement pattern in each farmstead is situated at long rectangular plots of farmland to give equal access to the river
material culture
physical objects made and used by members of culture group, visible
nonmaterial culture
intangible wide range of beliefs, values, myths, and symbolic measurings passed from generation to generation within society
cultural trait
units of transmission that permits diffusion and create tradition, impact how ppl perceive a place and act in that place
local/folk culture
generally more rural, ethnically homogenous, connected to local land, pass traditions, slow/resistant to change, regionally distinct
indigenous culture
subset to local cultures, no longer dominant ethnic group within traditional homeland bc migration, colonialism, etc
popular culture
heterogeneous, more influenced by key urban areas, quick to adopt tech
cultural attitude
attitudes in society shaped by cultural opinions, beliefs, perspectives
mutually agreed-upon system of symbolic communication, integral part of cultural identity, essence of human culture, identity, spreads ideas
those fluent in more than 2 languages
code switching
note that cultural contact affects how ppl behave in public, how they speak to others
dimension of identity, a structured set of beliefs & practices through which ppl seek mental and physical harmony
ethnic group
ppl of common ancestry and cultural tradition, strong feeling of group identity, involuntary
physical characteristics of a group, reflects cultural ideas abt human difference
ethnic geography
study of spatial aspects of ethnicity
promoting the active participation & inclusion of minority group in national histories, national policies, culture institutions
cultural relativism
seeks to understand individuals and cultures from a wider perspective of cultural logic, see world in just thru lens of observer
ethnocentric approach
evaluated other cultures from the perspective of the observer's culture, their culture is perceived as most natural or correct, natural benchmark
behaviors heavily discouraged by culture
children learn: by repeating sounds
informal instruction
children learn: adult reminds child
formal instruction
children learn: school
cultural regions
broad area where groups share similar but not identical cultural traits (formal functional or vernacular)
cultural landscape
the region is the visible reflection of its culture, reflects local building materials, tech, economic standing, and cultural beliefs, meanings, values, experiments
ethnic enclaves
clusters of ppl of same culture but surrounded by ppl of culture that us dominant in religion
cultural realms
larger areas that include several religions
clam to "universal truth" seen as applicable to humans (religion)
sacred spaces
sites of special religious significances, preserved across generation, natural human-made sites that posses religious meaning
memorial spaces
preserved site used to commemorate past
attempt to follow a literal interpretation of religious faith
countries whos governments are run by religious leaders thru the use of religious laws
ethnic religion
group of ppl living in one place & emphasize strong cultural characteristics
universalizing religion
actively seek converts to faith regardless of ethnic background (Buddhism, Christianity, Islam)
religious journey taken by person to sacred place of their religion
scientist who studies language
language tree
shows relationship ancestry languages families& suggests how several languages are related to each other, how one grows out
language family that half the world's population speaks; English, French, Spanish, german, Hindi
official language
one designated by law to be language of government
borders of individual word usages or pronunciations
2 largest language families
Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan
physical landscape
all natural physical surroundings that create & shape places we are living in/examining
the feeling resulting from the standardization of the built environment
agricultural landscape
dominant features of rural landscapes, powerfully evoke sense of place, part of cultural landscapes
indigenous landscape
architectural forms are indigenous & local to area, better suited directly tied to physical landscape than popular forms
popular forms
architecture that is more widespread & common
postmodern landscapes
architecture that interrupts skyline
modernist architecture
functional, orderly (downtown skyscraper)
postmodern architecture
reaction against rigid common building
sequent occupance
fact that many places have been controlled or affected by a variety of groups over a period of time, reshaped functions or meanings & left behind layers of meaning
linguistic landscapes
publicly displayed words, reveal locally dominant language, indicate bilingualism
less influenced or controlled by religion
ppl with distinct norms, values, material practices that differ from dominant culture surrounding them
religious buildings
prominent additions to the landscape as they create places to worship & communal gathering place for the community
destruction of states, monuments, plaques, other religious/political elements
sense of place
ppl's perception abt a place, shaped by elements of cultural landscaoe
"strong sense of place"
places distinct and different than other places
generating interest around a strong sense of place, crafted image with powerful political and economic implications
a variety of efforts that seek to use and design public places to better serve the needs of residents and foster a stronger community
centripetal force
one that brings people together & unifies a neighborhood, society, communioty
centrifugal forces
forces that threaten the union of neighborhood society or country, ppl pull further apart or
process where by religion becomes less dominant force in everyday life than it was in the past
political instability
ppl want to change the current political borders which do not line up with cultural groupings
pattern by which phenomenon spreads from one location to another, bringing idea/practice to new home land
distance decay
limits ability of some cultural traits to diffuse to far away locations
absorbing barriers
barriers that completely halt diffusion of cultural trait
permeable barriers
allows innovations to diffuse partially in weakened way
pidgin language
language with small vocab derived from languages of two or more groups in contact
creole languages
pidgin language acquire fuller vocab and become native languages
lingua franca
language of communication and commerce spoken across wide area, not mother tongue
global lingua franca
linguistic process where languages converge & create new languages and forms of communication
the ability to speak two languages colloquially
sovereign political entities that seek to expand beyond origin territory to control more territory politically and/or economically
motivating impulse to control greater amounts of territory
act of forcefully controlling a foreign territory
most influential tech for language, helped civilizations develop and spread
English and French
language of educated elite, holds legal status, lingua franca
process of making an area more urban, hierarchy shows the cultural impact of how traits transform and reshape cultures
process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence & start operations on international scale
ethnic pressure
fitting in but embracing culture
spreads culture, religion, language
time-space convergence
phenomenon where the introduction of how transportation tech reduces the time it takes to travel between places
alphabetic writing system
letters represent discrete sounds, strung together to form word's sounds
characters represent blocks of word sounds
characters represent entire words (Chinese/emojis)
extinct language
few elderly & no speakers
language hotspots
places with most unique misunderstood, endangered tongues, around globe
nonprofit endangered language alliance
department that encourages and teacher endangered languages to prevent death of language
convergence hypothesis
idea that cultures are converging, results in placelessness
adapting global practices to fit local culture practices & preferences
cultural hearth
a forces demographic area where important innovations are born and formed which they spread
language family
group of related languages that share common ancestry
regional variation that makes mutual comprehension possible, locally favored vocab
way of pronouncing words, closely tied to specific cultural religion
3 greatest monotheistic religions
Christianity, Islam, Judaism
largest religion, monotheistic, god is trinity; branches: roman Catholics, protestants, eastern Christians
5 pillars of faith, proselytic faith
2 branches of islam
Shi'ite Muslims, Sunni Muslims
4 noble truths, prince Siddhartha Gautama, reach nirvana(enlightenment)
resulting state of enlightenment, those in stage are called Buddas
Jews collectively who practice a religion based on the Torah and the Talmud
India, believe in reincarnation
animistic religions
faith that subscribes to idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but in animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena
Semitic religious hearth
faiths among ppl who speak Semitic languages who lived in or on the margins of deserts of southwestern Asia, the middle east
Indus-ganga religious hearth
plains fringing the northern edge of the Indian subcontinent, the birth of Buddhism and Hinduism
proselytic phase
a religion that spreads it's message to others through missionary work
east-Asian religious hearth
Confucianism and Taoism, adopted widely throughout china
names of places, place names, reflect culture
endangered language
those not taught to children by parents, not used actively in everyday matters
the ethnic group adopts enough of ways of host society to be able to function economically and socially
blending in with the host culture and loss of many distinctive ethnic traits
presence of several distinct cultural/ethnic groups within society
the notion that ppl adopt elements of other cultures as well as contribute elements of their own culture, transforming both cultures
blending of beliefs, ideas, practices, traits in religious context
syncretic religions
combine elements of two or more different belief systems
orthodox religions
emphasize purity faith and not open to blending elements of other belief systems
anti-immigrant attitudes may form around cultural majorities, bringing violence or government actions against immigrant or minority group
cultural covergence
two way blending results from increased interaction in cultures
Japanese religion, worship of ancestors and nature spirits and belief in sacred power in both animate and inanimate things
belief that there is only one god
belief and worship more than one god