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the challenging stimuli or things that happen to people like a time-pressure exam, being in an unfamiliar place, or the death of a loved one
Stress is _____ and do not judge others by your standards or stressfulness
competence and control, one's sense of belonging, autonomy
threats at the adolescent stage
development of self and identity, involvement in groups, development of close relationships
3 major developments that occur at the time of life
Break up with boyfriend/girlfriend Increased argument with parents, and between parents The pressure of expectations from self and others Change in parents' financial status Serious illness or injury of a family member Pressure at school from teachers, coaches, grades, & homework Relationships with family & friends
What Stresses Senior High School Students
Internalizing difficulties & Externalizing behaviors
Several health and behavioral problems because of stressors
Internalizing difficulties
Deep sadness and intense fears
Externalizing behaviors
Aggression and antisocial acts
Positive Side of Stress
Negative side of stress
May include negative changes in behavior such as feeling sick when stress
Helpful in promoting one's growth and development
Internalizing disorder
are mental problems that arise from coping with difficulties by turning against oneself
Problem-focused coping, Emotion-focused coping, Avoidance coping
coping strategies

Emotion-focused coping

is more subjective as it considers the difficulties challenging the feeling state of the individual

Problem-focused coping
Dealing with the actual problems posed by a stressful situation
Avoidance Coping
Is what happens when one would rather ignore the stressors or fantasize being in a different non-stressful circumstance
Get more active Slow down Eat healthy diet Get good quality sleep Keep a notebook or journal Make time for relaxation and fun Have strong connection with people Leave work at work Be greatful for what you have Get professional help
How to manage stress

Frontal Lobe

Temporal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

4 Lobes of the Brain

Temporal Lobe

Which contains the primary auditory area, in charge of hearing and processing of auditory stimuli.

Frontal Lobe

Where the primary motor area is located

Parietal Lobe

Contains the primary somatosensory area which processes sensory signals such as touch, pressure, pain, thermal sense.

Occipital Lobe

Which is the location of the primary visual area

Left and right hemispheres

The brain can be divided into 2 hemispheres

Sperry and Gazzaniga

According to their research, the 2 hemispheres of the brain communicate with each other through the corpus callosum

Corpus callosum

Serves as the bridge between the left and the right brain hemispheres

Left hemisphere

Associated with logic, reasoning, and language

Right hemisphere

Involved in spatial relationships, art, imagination, and personal memories

Mental health

  • the achievement of expected developmental milestones and the establishment of effective coping skills, secure attachments, and positive social relationships”

  • It affects how we think, feel and act.

  • It determines how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices.

Physical development

Social and emotional development

Peer relationships

Self-esteem/body image

Transition to independence

The developmental needs important for children and adolescents

Physical development

Related with puberty and the development of sexual identity

Social and emotional development

including the opportunities for social and emotional skills

Peer relationships

which include the ability to manage peer pressure and peer expectation.

Self-esteem/body image

which include challenges in adapting to societal messages about the body

Transition to independence

Which includes beginning to think independently from parents

Mental health and hygiene

Ensuring --- and --- leads to overall well-being for individuals

Pollard and Lee

According to them, well-being among young people consists of positive indicators in their physical, psychological, cognitive, social and economic life.

  1. Physical (health, nutrition, body care, etc.)

  2. Psychological (life satisfaction, resilience, self-worth)

  3. Cognitive (academic achievement, cognitive ability, school-related behavior)

  4. Social (relation with parents, peers and community)

  5. Economic (family resources, income, etc.)

For Pollard and Lee, well-being among young people consists of positive indicators in their;


health, nutrition, body care, etc.


life satisfaction, resilience, self-worth


academic achievement, cognitive ability, school-related behavior


relation with parents, peers and community


family resources, income, etc.

Poor mental health in adolescence

  • is associated with several health and social concerns such as a higher alcohol intake, and tobacco and illegal substance abuse.

  • is also a factor in adolescent pregnancy, school dropout, and delinquent behaviors.

Psychological well-being

type of happiness that based on meaning, purpose and fulfilling one’s potentials

  1. Positive emotions

  2. Engagement

  3. Positive Relationships

  4. Sense of Meaning

  5. Sense of Accomplishment

Psychological well-being consists of (PERMA):

Positive emotions

According to psychological research, individuals who are high on these items tend to experience high levels of positive emotions and have a greater capacity to flourish in life.


is experienced when we have what we call “flow”- when we are completely absorbed in a certain task or activity that time seems to stop and we are “in the zone”.

Positive relationships and strong interpersonal connections

Appear to lead to a more flourishing life


means belonging to and serving something you believe is bigger than the self.

Sense of Accomplishment

is related with feelings of success, achievement, sense of competence and mastery.

Mental Hygiene

is a discipline which deals with protecting and maintaining mental health though education and a strong support group of family and friends

Mental distress

Not paying attention to mental health may cause ___ which can take many different forms

  1. Depression

  2. Anxiety

  3. Conduct disorder

  4. Eating disorder

  5. Self-injury

  6. Risky sexual behavior

  7. Substance abuse

  8. Antisocial behavior

Mental Health Concerns in Adolescence

  1. Family members

  2. Friends, peers

  3. Teachers

  4. Counselors

Getting support for mental health (FFTC)

  1. Encourage the person to seek help and support from an adult

  2. Spend time with the person, listen to his/her concerns.

  3. Be hopeful help them feel like their life will get better.

  4. Stand by them. Invite your friend to things that you are doing; keeping busy and staying in touch with friends will help your friend feel better, when they are ready.

  5. Learn as much as you can about mental illness so that you understand what is going on for them.

  6. Learn as much as you can about mental illness so that you understand what is going on for them.

  7. If you are a close friend or family member of someone with a mental health problem, make sure that you get help as well. Talk to someone about what is happening. This will help you be better support person.

  8. Put the person's life before your friendship. If the person mentions thoughts of suicide, don't keep it secret, even if the person has asked you to.

Strategies for supporting someone with mental health concerns:

  1. Social Skills

  2. Problem-solving skills

  3. Development of self-esteem

Ways one can develop mental health or Psychological Well-being

Social skills

greatly help individuals gain friends, strike conversations, and generally be able properly carry themselves in public and in situations where they need to socialize

  1. Try to understand different perspectives

  2. Learn to listen with empathy

  3. Learn to read facial expressions

  4. Learn impulse control

  5. Develop emotional intelligence

Tips to improve social skills (TLLLD)

  1. Identify the problem

  2. Brainstorm possible solutions

  3. Evaluate the pros and cons of each solution

  4. Choose the best option

  5. Create a back-up plan

Step-by-step instructions that could aid in solving problems

  1. Exercise, relax, and have fun

  2. Do something good for others

  3. Accept compliments

  4. Take pride of your opinion and ideas

  5. Set goals

  6. Recognize what you can change and those that are not in your control

  7. Manage your own critique, use helpful self-feedback instead

  8. Practice gratitude, focus on the good that is going on in your life

  9. Aim for effort rather than perfection

  10. Have a growth mindset, view mistakes as learning experiences

  11. Avoid comparing yourself with others

  12. Remind yourself that everyone excels at different things

  13. Give yourself credit

Ways to develop a person’s self-esteem

Emotional Intelligence

Is the ability to understand, use, and manage our emotions


are both have cognitive and behavioral components, which may be overt (displayed) or covert (concealed).

  1. Voluntary communication

  2. Involuntary communication

How people exhibit emotions

Voluntary Communication

By choosing to avoid other people because he/she feels uncomfortable seeing them, or smiling at people to communicate that he/she is happy to see them.

Involuntary Communication

Can be seen in one’s facial expressions of emotions

Primary emotions (basic emotions)

  • which are innate emotions that are experienced for short periods of time and appear rapidly, usually as a reaction to an outside stimulus, and are experienced similarly across cultures.

  • ex. joy, distress, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust

Secondary emotions

  • are processed by a different part of the brain, and require higher order thinking, and are therefore not reflexive.

  • Ex. love, guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride, envy, and jealousy.

  • They develop over time and take longer to fade as opposed to the primary emotions.

Competent Communicators

people become more ___ by becoming more aware of how they experience these emotions and how they choose to express them


Is about how strongly one feels emotions

Positive emotions

Are pleasant and provide one with a good feelings, while negative emotions are the opposite

Negative emotions

Are unpleasant and cause feeling of discomfort

Emotional Intelligence

is defined as a set of skills for processing emotional information and using this information to guide one’s thinking and actions

Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer

They described emotional intelligence as a “form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action”


popularized emotional intelligence by proposing that it is “ understanding one’s own feelings, empathy for the feelings of others and the regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living”


Who said that “A key component of emotional intelligence is self-awareness”?

Personal and social/interpersonal skills

Daniel Goleman divided emotional intelligence into 2 competencies


is the skill of being aware of emotions as they occur and evolve. Although it is important to be able to distinguish between positive and negative emotions, through self-awareness you may begin to label them as either appropriate for certain circumstances.

Emotional Awareness

is the ability to recognize one’s own emotions and their effects

Accurate Self-Assessment

means having good understanding of one’s own strengths and weaknesses, and most importantly, one’s own limitations.


  • means having a strong sense of self-worth.

  • People who have strong self-confidence are able to voice out their beliefs and do not always “go with the flow”.

Self-regulation or Self-Management

refers to the ability to manage one’s emotions appropriately and proportionately.


  • is the ability to recognize and control one’s emotions appropriately ; the ability not to make rash decisions or overreact to a situation.

  • leads to rational and balanced decisions based on what is important and not on how one feels at the time.


is the ability to maintain one’s integrity and how thoughts and behaviors are consistent with one’s own personal values


entails taking responsibility for personal performance by making sure that it matches up to one’s ability and values.


means being flexible in response to change. It is the ability to adapt one’s responses and the way he/she fits different situations effectively.


means being open to different and new ideas; new ways of solving problems; and preparedness to see things from a perspective that is different from what one is used to.


is the force that drives one to do things. It is what pushes us to achieve our goals and feel more fulfilled, which generally improves overall quality of life.

Social Skills/Interpersonal Competencies

are used to interact and handle relationships with other people such as the ability to communicate appropriately, and build and maintain meaningful relationships and better quality of life.


is the ability to communicate and lead by understanding other’s thoughts, views, and feelings. Developing empathy leads to stronger and more meaningful relationships

a. Learn to listen effectively to both verbal and non-verbal messages of others

b. Ask questions to find out more about how other people are feeling, give feedback to clarify if you were able to correctly identify and assess their feelings.

c. Learn to respect the feelings of others even if you are not in agreement with them. Avoid belittling, rejecting, or making judgmental comments.

How to improve empathy?

Social Skills

  • refer to the skills needed to effectively handle and influence other people’s emotions.

  • They include building bonds, communication skills, conflict management skills, and change management skills.