Pre-IB World History 9: First Semester

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Why did the Crusades change Europeans' desire to explore?
Since the Europeans sought out spices from the Crusades, Italian merchants began transporting these goods over land. However, since it was so far, the goods were marked up severely. While the Italians got rich, most Europeans didn't have access to these luxurious items. Europeans then wanted to have their own trade routes.
Why did the Renaissance change Europeans' desire to explore?
Because of the idea of humanism that was formed during the Renaissance, people grew curious about what other cultures have achieved and accomplished.
Why did the Reformation change Europeans' desire to explore?
Religious groups such as the Jesuits valued converting people to their own religion. The Crusades spurred the belief that it was the Europeans' duty to defend and spread their religion.
Why did Monarchs change Europeans' desire to explore?
Monarchs looked for new sources of wealth. One proven method was to create colonies.
Why did Technological Advances change Europeans' desire to explore?
Most expeditions at the time ended in disaster, whether it was a broken ship, low supplies, or for other reasons. Thanks to new advances in sailing technology, the likelihood of returning from voyages greatly increased, so more people were willing to explore.
Why did Fame and Fortune change Europeans' desire to explore?
People not only sought out foreign riches, but also a rank of higher status. Being in league with important people gave people many more opportunities.
Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?
He was a Portuguese prince who created a Navigational School in 1419. Prince Henry's efforts made the Portuguese the lead in sea exploration.
What were the subjects that were taught in Prince Henry the Navigator's Navigational School?
Mapmaking, shipbuilding, instrument making, science, and sea captaining.
Why were mapmakers important for expeditions?
Mapmakers could not only make maps during the expedition, but they also knew how to get from place to place and how to return.
Why were shipbuilders important for expeditions?
Shipbuilders would not only make ships before they left port, but could also make repairs onboard during the voyage.
Why were instrument makers important for expeditions?
Instrument makers developed crucial navigation equipment, such as the compass and the astrolabe.
Why were scientists important for expeditions?
Scientists could interpret scientific things about weather, the ocean, animals, and plants.
Why were sea captains important for expeditions?
Sea captains would have important leadership and decision making skills for voyagers.
What was the name of the important new ship that allowed Europeans to travel further by sea?
The caravel. Thanks to triangular sails that let it sail against the wind. It also was smaller and more maneuverable while being stronger.
What was the astrolabe?
A navigational tool that had over 50 different functions, such as telling the time and direction.
What was the sextant?
A navigational tool that was an advanced version of the astrolabe. It didn't have as many functions, but had much more accurate directional functions, such as telling the latitude and longitude.
Why had European countries only partially explored Africa's west coast?
European countries would go only as far as they had to down Africa's west coast for trade before returning home.
Who was Bartolomeu Dias?
A Portuguese explorer that wanted to spread Christianity and create a trade route to Asia. He only made it to the tip of Africa.
Why was it hard for Bartolomeu Dias to travel down the African west coast?
Because no European had ever mapped that area; He was going in blindly.
How did Bartolomeu Dias make it across the Cape of Good Hope?
A storm pushed his ships across.
Why didn't Bartolomeu Dias reach Asia?
His crew threatened to mutiny.
Why did Bartolomeu Dias' crew threaten to mutiny?
Because they were exhausted and low on supplies.
Why was Bartolomeu Dias' discovery of the tip of Africa important?
Because people now knew that it was possible to sail around Africa.
Who was Vasco da Gama?
A Portuguese captain that established the first trade route with India.
Why was Bartolomeu Dias' discovery helpful to Vasco da Gama?
Since the west coast of Africa had been charted, da Gama could just go straight down the coast full speed without having to worry about where he was.
What did Vasco da Gama's decision to put land behind him and try to cut across the Indian Ocean to India so risky?
Not only was he going in blindly, but if da Gama went too far out, he wouldn't be near any land for supplies.
Where did Vasco da Gama arrive in India?
How did Vasco da Gama urge his men to trade anything they could and as much as they could?
Because in India, the spices were much cheaper, and he would be able to sell them for more than ten times as much in Europe.
How long does it take for da Gama to sail to Calicut and back?
2 years
Who was Alfonso de Albuqueruque?
A Portuguese admiral that sought out to conquer parts of Asia rather than trade with them.
Where was the first place Albuqeruque conquered and when?
Goa, India (1510)
Where was the second place Albuqeruque conquered and when?
Malacca, Indonesia (1511)
Why were the places Albuqeruque conquered so important to the Portuguese?
Because this gave them a base of operations in Asia and made them leaders in this trade. It also broke the Italian-Muslim trade monopoly.
Why was Spain jealous of Portugal?
Because despite the fact that Spain was bigger and richer, Portugal was dominating the sea trade to Asia.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
An Italian explorer who believed that he could sail to Asia by going west in 2 weeks.
Why were Christopher Columbus' ideas not taken seriously?
Because he believed the earth was shaped like a pear, and much smaller than science claimed it to be.
How did Christopher Columbus manage to get permission from Spain to go on his expedition?
Queen Isabella convinces her husband, King Ferdinand, to let Columbus go on the voyage, as they desperately wanted new territory for trade routes.
How many supplies did Columbus get from King Ferdinand for his 1st voyage?
3 ships and 90 men
Where did Christopher Columbus land?
Hispaniola, modern-day Dominican Republic and Haiti.
Why was Columbus so sure that he had landed in the East Indies?
Because there were spices and goods that weren't in Europe and the skin of the natives was darker than his own.
What did Christopher Columbus call the natives that he found when he landed in Hispaniola?
Indians, because he thought he had landed in India.
Did Columbus ever know he had discovered a new land?
No, until his death he believed he had found India.
What is the first thing King Ferdinand does when Columbus arrives with his ships full of goods?
He immediately sends Columbus back with more supplies to conquer the lands he had discovered.
How many supplies did Columbus get from King Ferdinand for his 2nd voyage?
18 ships and a couple thousand soldiers.
How long after his discovery did Christopher Columbus live?
14 years
Why did Portugal become mad at Spain?
Because Portugal believed that Spain had landed in their territory and was conquering Portuguese land.
Who intervened to stop the tension between Portugal and Spain?
Pope Alexander VI
How does Pope Alexander VI try to ease the tension between Portugal and Spain?
He suggests the creation of the Line of Demarcation.
What was the Line of Demarcation?
An imaginary line that divided the newfound territory between Portugal and Spain.
Whose territory was east of the Line of Demarcation? Whose was west?
Portugal, Spain
How long did it take for the Line of Demarcation to be officially instituted?
1 year
What was signed between Portugal and Spain in agreement to the Line of Demarcation?
The Treaty of Tordesillas
Who was Ferdinand Magellan?
A Spanish explorer that sought to circumnavigate the globe.
What happens to Magellan in the Philippines?
He gets wounded in a fight against natives and dies.
What did Magellan's crew do with their captain being dead?
They kept his body and made it back to Spain with a dead Magellan on board.
What smaller country later begins to dominate the seas?
The Netherlands (The Dutch)
How big was the Dutch fleet?
About 20,000 ships by 1600
What company did the Netherlands create?
The Dutch East India Company
Why did the Dutch government allow the Dutch East India Company to become a monopoly?
So that they could focus solely on trading and naval power rather than competition.
What made the Dutch East India Company have almost as much power as a small country?
It could declare war, make treaties and allies, print its own currency, and take prisoners and execute them.
What places did the Dutch East India Company take from Portugal, and why were they so important?
Goa, Malacca, the Cape of Good Hope, and most of Portugal's other ports were overtaken by the Dutch East India Company. This was important because now Portugal had to pay taxes to travel through these locations, and this made the Dutch extremely rich.
What was the Mandate of Heaven?
The divine right for an emperor to rule according to the gods.
What was the Dynastic Cycle?
The cycle of dynasties rising and falling in China.
What was the first step of the Dynastic Cycle?
A new dynasty is born and the new emperor makes changes to the government and other systems (such as education) to make the empire run smoother.
What was the second step of the Dynastic Cycle?
Everything works better in the empire for a little while.
What was the third step of the Dynastic Cycle?
The Government becomes corrupted, normally by money or power.
What was the fourth step of the Dynastic Cycle?
Famine and natural disasters destroy the commoner's faith in their government.
What was the fifth step of the Dynastic Cycle?
Commoners become tired of all the problems in their empire so they revolt.
What was the sixth step of the Dynastic Cycle?
Dynasty is considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven.
What was the seventh step of the Dynastic Cycle?
The current emperor is defeated and a new one takes his place.
What did China do to keep the power and the peace in Asia?
They set up a tribute system that made other countries show submission by paying tribute to China.
What were the two criteria for a country to trade with China?
They had to pay tribute and only trade at certain ports.
Who became the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty?
Why was Hongwu said to have received the Mandate of Heaven?
Because had driven the Mongols out of China.
What did Hongwu instill to try and fix China?
Why did Hongwu have to try and repair farmland?
Because most of it had been destroyed in wars against the Mongols.
What crops did Hongwu encourage people to grow and why?
Rice, cotton, and sugarcane; were easy to grow, and could be consumed or sold in large amounts.
How did Hongwu encourage to grow crops?
By putting less tax on farmlands that grew these specific crops.
In one of his reforms, what was Hongwu trying to remove from society.
Reminders of China's Mongol past.
What did Hongwu create in order to not have a corrupted government?
He created the civil service exam.
What were people tested on in a civil service exam?
Their knowledge of Confucian values.
Why was the exam biased towards more wealthy people?
Because richer people had more time and money to spend on learning Confucianism, while poorer people had to work most of the time and couldn't afford to spend time or money on other things.
What were four of some of the Confucian morals that Hongwu used in his reforms?
Ceremony is important, We should treat our parents with reverence, We should be obedient to honorable people, Cultivated Knowledge was more important than creativity.
Why did Hongwu kill over a thousand government members near the end of his rule?
Because he was paranoid about a takeover.
Which of Hongwu's sons continued the Ming Dynasty?
From where did Yongle move the capital and to where did he move it?
From Nanjing to Beijing
What was Beijing called at the time?
The Forbidden City
Why was Beijing referred to as the Forbidden City?
Because normal people could not visit it and only heads of state and royalty.
What was Yongle most known for?
His interest of the outside world.
How many voyages did Yongle launch?
Who led all of the voyages of exploration?
Zheng He
What did Zheng He do on the voyages?
He distributed gifts to nearby countries to show China's power and encourage them to join the tribute system.
How big were Zheng He's boats and how many did he have?
About a hundred boats that were 400 feet long and 160 feet wide.
What was the name given to Zheng He's fleet?
The Treasure Fleet
How far did Zheng He travel?
As far west as Africa's east coast and as far east as Indonesia.
Why did Yongle stop launching expeditions?
Because the cost of the fleet outweighed the money they would make from the voyages.
Why did China had no need to trade with the outside world?
Because they were completely self-sustainable.
How many ports allowed trade in China and why only those?
There were only three ports open to trade so that the government could keep a close eye on what came into China.
Why did China fall behind technologically during the Ming and Qing dynasties?
Since agricultural production had less tax, and because of Confucian influence, agricultural production was favored over industrialization.
Why Christian missionaries not welcomed during the Ming Dynasty?
Because China at the time had no interest in what was happening in the outside world.
What caused the eventual decline of the Ming Dynasty?
Multiple corrupt emperors and bad weather made the Chinese believe the Ming had lost the Mandate of Heaven.
Who attacked China at the end of the Ming Dynasty?
The Manchus
Why did the Qing Dynasty get off to a bad start?
Because the Manchus were seen as foreigners and not welcomed at first.
Who was the first Qing emperer?
What did Kangxi initially do that increases his popularity?
He lowered taxes.
During the Qing Dynasty, how else could people be selected for government positions besides the civil service exam?
Intellectuals were selected.
Why was Kangxi thrilled to have Jesuits in his court?
Because he was interested in what was happening in the outside world.
Who was the emperor after Kangxi?
His grandson, Qianlong.
What happens to China's size during Qianlong's rule?
It doubled in size.
What foreign nation agreed to China's trading terms?
The Dutch (The Netherlands)
What was the ritual bowing that was done in front of the Chinese emperor?
What foreign nation did not agree to China's trading terms?
England (The British)
What does an increase in food production lead to?
An increase in population.
What job did women usually have in China?
Finances and supervised children.
What were the small towns that feudal Japan was broken into called?
What was 16th century Japan called?
The Warring States period
Political power in Feudal Japan was _____________?
What was a damiyo?
A powerful landholding samurai that controlled all the territory in their castle-town.
What was the code that all samurai followed?
The Bushido Code
Who was Oda Nobunaga?
A damiyo that sought out to unify Japan.
Did Nobunaga unify all of Japan?
No, but he did take control of a portion of it.
Why did Nobunaga commit suicide?
Because his generals doubted in him and he felt that he had failed his people.
What was the ritual suicide of a samurai called?
Did the emperor have political power?
No, they were a figurehead.
Who takes over after Nobunaga?
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Nobunaga's best general.
Why does Hideyoshi eventually fail at unifying Japan?
He tries to do too many things at once, such as trying to invade Korea (he fails).
Why did Hideyoshi ban the Jesuits?
He became suspicious of them, thinking they were like spies and that the Europeans were going to invade.
Who was Saint Francis Xavier?
A Jesuit missionary that encouraged missionaries to spread Catholicism to Asia.
What was the sword that samurai spent most of their time perfecting the art of?
What weapon did samurai use for long range?
Who was Tokugawa Ieyasu?
The daimyo that completed the unification of Japan.
What happened when Ieyasu unified Japan?
Power became centralized.
What was the alternate attendance policy?
A policy made by Tokugawa Ieyasu to try and 'tame' the daimyo.
How did the alternate attendance policy work?
- The daimyo were required to spend every other year in the capital to try and come up with ideas to improve Japan.- If the daimyo wanted to leave the capital on their year off, their family had to stay.
What was feudalism?
A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.
What happened during the Tokugawa Shogunate Period?
- Confucian values were honored, and one of the main values they valued was agriculture.- Farmers were considered the ideal citizen.- Japan does start to become more industrialized.- There are new forms of art, such as haiku and kabuki.
What was a haiku?
5-7-5 syllable, 3 line verse type of poetry
What was kabuki?
A Japanese theater that used elaborate costumes and makeup to depict modern life.
What European country was the first to arrive in Japan?
The Portuguese
Why were the Japanese so interested in the European goods?
The Japanese were intrigued with the new items, especially firearms, as the daimyo sought out any advantage they could get over their opponents.
How did the introduction of firearms change the way of the samurai?
This changed the honorable traditions of the samurai and the way of the sword, as the samurai were not as useful.
When does Columbus 'discover' America.
What did Columbus do in America after his first voyage?
Who were the conquistadors?
Spanish 'conquerors' that went to the New World seeking adventure, wealth, and glory, as well as spreading Catholicism.
What was Euro Centrism?
The idea of European superiority.
Who was Vasco de Balboa?
A Spanish explorer that crossed over Panama and became the first European to see the Pacific.
Who was Hernando Cortez?
A Spanish conquistador that defeated the Aztecs.
What was El Dorado?
A rumor of a land in the New World that was filled with gold and silver.
What does El Dorado mean?
The Golden One
What was the capital of the Aztec empire before Hernando Cortez captured it?
Who was the ruler of the Aztec empire before Hernando Cortez captured it?
Montezuma II
Who was the native that learned Spanish and was used by Hernando Cortez as a translator?
Why did the Aztecs give Hernando Cortez gifts of gold when him and his conquistadors first arrived?
Because they thought he was a god, as it was prophesied that their god would come around the same time Cortez did.
When did Hernando Cortez defeat the Aztecs?
Despite being outnumbered, how did the conquistadors defeat the Aztecs?
They had better armor and weapons (especially firearms), horses, and European diseases weakened the Aztecs.
Who was Amerigo Vespucci?
An Italian that finally figured out that the European maps of the time were incredibly inaccurate. America was named after him.
Who was Francisco Pizarro?
Spanish conquistador that defeated the Incas.
Who was the Inca leader before Pizarro conquered them?
What do the Inca promise to do when Pizarro captures Atahualpa?
To fill a room "once with gold and twice with silver".
What does Pizarro do when the Incas give him the ransom for Atahualpa?
He just kills Atahualpa and keeps the treasure.
What happens when Pizarro kills the Inca's leader?
The empire goes to chaos, and Pizarro takes over the capital during the chaos.
What was the encomienda system?
A system in which the Spanish monarchs granted the conquistadors the right to demand labor from Native Americans, and in turn, would give natives education, shelter, food, and resources. However, natives are usually mistreated.
What were cash crops the Spanish were selling?
Coffee, Sugar, Tobacco
What was the hierarchy in the Spanish colonies?
1st: Peninsulares2nd: Creoles3rd: Mestizos4th: Natives5th: Slaves
Who were Peninsulares?
Spaniards that were born in Spain.
Who were Creoles?
People born of Spanish parents in the colonies.
Who were Mestizos?
People born of Spanish and Native parents.
What was the powerful Spanish navy called?
The Spanish Armada
Who was Juan Ponce de Leon?
A Spanish explorer that while looking for the Fountain of Youth claimed Florida for Spain.
Who was Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
A Spanish Explorer that, while looking for El Dorado, traveled through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Who was Bortoleme de las Casas?
A Spanish Catholic priest who wanted slaves to be treated more fairly.
What were the French trying to search for in Northern America?
The Northwest passage to Asia.
What river did the French go down while looking for the Northwest passage?
The St. Lawrence River
Why did the French stay in Northern America?
Because the Spanish Armada patrolled the lower parts of the Americas.
Where was Quebec/New France established?
At Mount Real
What territory did the French claim while traveling down the Mississippi river?
The Great Lakes, all of the land around the Mississippi river, and Louisiana.
Despite the massive size of the French colony, how many colonists were actually living there?
What professions were the majority of the French colonists?
Catholic priests or fur traders.
Why were furs good for trading?
Because they were light and sought after in Europe, fetching a higher price.
What was the company made by Elizabeth I to colonize the New World?
The Virginia Company
Who was Elizabeth I's cousin that helped charter the colonies in North America?
King James (became king after her)
What was the first successful colony for the British in America?
Why did Jamestown come off to a bad start?
Because the swamp Jamestown was in had insects with diseases, little food, and the water wasn't safe to drink because people would put their waste in the river. Also, none of the colonists had any experience in labor or agriculture, and there was no immediate focus on food because everyone was just looking for gold.
What saved the colony of Jamestown?
A ship crashed nearby with tobacco seeds, and the colonists realized that tobacco grew great in the Americas, and it became a huge cash crop and was used as an export.
Who was Henry Hudson?
A Dutch explorer that discovered the Hudson Bay and River around New York.
What was the colony that the Dutch established in Albany, New York called?
Fort Orange
What was the company that was created for the Dutch endeavors in the New World?
The Dutch West India Company
Why did Charles II want to drive out the Dutch?
Because New Netherland was between and blocked the North and South English colonies.
Who did Charles II send out to deal with the Dutch?
James, the Duke of York
What did the Dutch do when the British confronted them?
They surrendered without firing a shot.
How many permanent residents were in the 13 British colonies?
1.2 million
Where are the British confronted by the French when pushing to Western territory?
The Ohio Territory
What was the war between the British and the French over the Ohio Territory called?
The French and Indian War
Which side did most natives support in the French and Indian War?
The French
How long did the French and Indian War last, who won it, and what did they win?
7 years; England; all of the Ohio Territory
How was the relationship between the French and the Natives?
The French saw the natives as trading partners.
How was the relationship between the British and the Natives?
The British saw natives as agents of the devil and only wanted to push the natives off their land.
What was King Phillip's War?
It wasn't a war, but a term used to describe a native Mctacom that revolted against the English and killed quite a few colonists in an attempt to drive them out. He, of course, failed.
What were the main diseases that the natives didn't have immunity to?
Smallpox and measles.
How was slavery in Africa different than slavery in the colonies?
Slavery was a consequence, not hereditary, and slaves were still treated like actual people.
Why did Europeans want to start using slaves to seek out wealth rather than just conquering and trading?
Because the plantations in the colonies needed workers, and indentured servants were no longer common.
Why did Europeans prefer using Africans as slaves?
1. Africans had already been exposed to European diseases because of Merchants that came to Africa.2. African tribes were already experienced in farming and labor.3. They didn't know their way around and were less likely to try and run away.4. Their skin color made them stand out so that they would be easier to catch if they escaped/
Where were the three points of the Triangular Trade?
Europe, Africa, and the Americas
How did the Triangular Trade work?
Europeans brought manufactured goods to Africa, which were traded for slaves by African merchants, and the slaves were bought in the colonies. The ships were filled with raw materials from the colonies to be brought back to Europe to be made into more manufactured goods.
What was the Middle Passage?
The journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas
Why was the Middle Passage so cruel?
Slaves were chained and densely packed on the ships, and they often endured beatings, diseases that spread across the boat, and just straight up suicide.
How many of African slaves didn't make the Middle Passage?
About 20% died
What happened to African slaves when they landed at the colonies?
They were given a couple days of rest, then were auctioned off.
What kind of jobs did slaves have in the colonies?
Mostly agricultural work, as well as mining, ranching, and as servants.