Athlete training final exam

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Spaced Repetition

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Practice Test



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Which tape can help to provide compression, give proprioceptive feedback, provide support, and secure protective pads and dressings?
elastic tape
Which tape can help to provide support to joints by restricting excessive motions?
How should the skin be prepared for taping?
body part should be cleaned, dry, and free of hair before application hair should be removed with an electric razor or disposable razor check for cuts or abrasions, if there are some then they should be cleaned with normal saline and covered padding if needed to reduce friction spray adhesive spray and add pre-wrap if needed
Unless the specific technique being applied requires the body part being taped to be placed in a specific position, the body part is usually taped in?
function position example: hip spica - patient is required to stand with the hip and knee placed in a slight flexion, which is a functional position for the hip
How do you position a patients foot when you are doing a great toe taping?
the patient is sitting with their leg extended and their ankle slightly off the surface of the table. Their foot is flexed and keeping their great toe relaxed/neutral
What is the purpose for the great toe taping?
limit motion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint
When taping the great toe what should you do to protect the nail of the big toe?
place and adhesive dressing usually a band-aid
What are the steps in taping the great toe?
1.) apply anchors ( at the base of the big toe and at the middle of the arch just below the MP joint) 2.) Apply strip to plantar surface ( inside of the big toe to the lateral side of the 2nd anchor; be sure not to pull down too much) 3.) Apply additional support strips (this will create an x pattern going from inner to outer side of the toe and connecting anchor to anchor) 4.) Apply anchors to close (all strips should cover the MP joints and provide support) 5.) Close all loose ends of the tape job
How is the patients foot positioned when doing a simple arch support tape job?
patient is positions laying/sitting with their leg extended and ankle is slightly off the surface of the table. the foot is at a 90 degree flexion
What is the purpose of the arch support tape job?
support arch and midfoot (plantar fascia)
What are the steps for the simple arch tape job?
1.) Apply anchor (anchor and the base of the MP joint) 2.) Begin at the base of the great toe, apply tape along medial aspect of foot, around heel, and angle across the arch to end at starting point 3.) begin at base of 5th metatarsal, apply tape along lateral aspect of foot, around heel, and angle across the arch at starting point 4.) repeat pattern until arche is covered 5.) close up loose ends of the tape
What is the purpose of the closed basket weave ankle tape job?
provide external support to ankle ligaments and joint proprioception during activity
How is the patients positioned when they are getting a closed basket weave tape job?
the patient is sitting with their leg extended and foot flexed at a 90-degree angle, additionally the patient's leg all the way up to the base of the calf should be hanging off the table
What are the steps to doing a closed basket weave ankle tape job?
area should be cleaned, dry, hair free, checked for cuts or abrasions, sprayed with adhesive, and applied pre-wrap is wanted/needed steps: 1.) place gauze pad to Achilles tendon and top of foot where foot and leg meet 2.) apply proximal and distal anchors (proximal = 4-6 inches above ankle joint/ middle of arch in foot & distal = should be placed on the belly of the calf muscle) 3.) apply stirrup strip (starting from medial side of leg and pull to lateral side making sure the tape is behind the ankle joint) 4.) Apply horseshoe strip ( goes from medial side of proximal anchor to lateral side of proximal anchor) 5.) Continue to alternate stirrups and horseshoes 6.) apply figure 8 7.) Apply heel locks 8.) close with horizontal anchor strips/ or close up loose ends of the tape
What is the purpose of shin splint taping?
provide some relief of anterior shin pain
How is the patient positions when taping for shin splints?
patient is positioned standing up and their heel of injured leg is lifted or propped up to relax the muscles
What are the steps for taping shin splints?
prep the skin for taping 1.) apply proximal and distal anchors (should be placed below the knee and above the ankle) 2.) apple medial and lateral anchor strips distal to proximal, lifting up against gravity (sets base of x pattern strips) 3.) apply in an alternating oblique direction, forming an x over anterior shin; work distal to proximal (this helps to pull muscle fibers together to decrease pain) 4.) apply medial and lateral anchors 5.) apply distal and proximal anchors 6.) apply elastic tape loosely to protect tape job (do not wrap tightly since to will be tight when patient uses muscles)
Shin splints has many different causes, but often Shin splint pain is directly caused by?
hyperpronation (this is when the arches of you feet become more flattened when you walk or run)
What are some other causes of shin splints?
tendinitis of the tibialis posterior muscle periostitis (inflammation of the periosteum, layer of connective tissue that covers bone)
The shin splint tape job that we did in class helped which condition that causes shin splints?
What is the purpose of the shoulder spica?
provide support and stabilization for glenohumeral joint
What is the purpose of the thumb spica?
provide support and limit extension of first Metacarpophalangeal joint
What is the purpose of the taping the Achilles Tendon?
Limits excessive dorsiflexion and, in doing so, reduces the tension placed on the tendon
When doing a shoulder spica what material do you use?
elastic bandage or tensor bandage
How do you position the patient for a shoulder spica?
the patient is positioned standing up and the patients should hold the injured arm in internal rotation
How should the patient be positions when doing a thumb spica?
hand should be held out and thumb should be in a slight flexion and adduction
How should the patient be position when doing an Achilles tendon tape job?
patient should be on the stomach (prone) with their lower leg extended over the table. the foot or passively dorsiflexed to determine the spot of discomfort
How should the patient be posted when they are getting their quads wrapped?
the wrap should be placed over the clothes and patients heel should be elevated slightly and the tight in a neutral position
What are the 2 potential effects of force?
acceleration deformation
What are the factors that determine injury?
magnitude of force material properties of tissues involved
What is the response to a "small load" force?
elastic response
Define small load - elastic response
load is removed, material returns to its original shape
What is the response to "load reaching yield point" force?
plastic response
What is the definition of "load reaching yield point - plastic response"?
load is removed, some amount of deformation remains
What is yield load?
max load a material can handle w/o permanent deformation
What is failure?
force such as loss of continuity, rupturing soft-tissue, or fracturing bone
What is the definition of anisotropic?
diff strengths in response to loads from diff directions
Many tissues are?
anisotropic (they have diff strengths in response to loads from diff directions)
What categorized force relative to direction is defined as "force that acts on the long axis of a structure"
Which categorized force relative to direction is defined as "axial load that produces a crushing or squeezing type force"
Which categorized forced relative to direction is defined as "axial force in opposite direction; pulling or stretching the tissues."
Which categorized force relative to direction is defined as "force parallel to a plane passing through the object; and tends to cause sliding or displacement"
What is the primary constituent of skin, tendon, and ligaments?
What is the protein substance strong in resisting tensile forces?
collagen (tensile forces)
What is a wavy configuration that allows for an elastic type deformation or stretch but, overwise, is inelastic?
collagen (wavy)
How is collagen fibers arranged in tendons?
parallel arrangements
How does the parallel arrangements of collagen fibers help in tendons?
helps in resisting high, unidirectional tension loads from attached muscle
How are the collagen fibers arranged in ligaments?
collagen is parallel and interwoven
What is the role of collagen fibers in ligaments?
resists large tensile loads along the long axis of the ligament and smaller loads from other directions
What two things help a muscle to become viscoelastic?
extensibility and elasticity
What is extensibility when speaking in terms of muscles?
ability to be stretched
What is elasticity in terms of muscle?
ability to return to normal length
How does viscoelasticity help a muscle in terms on stretching?
viscoelasticity allows muscles to stretch to greater lengths over time in response to a sustained tensile force
What is contractility in terms of muscles?
ability to develop tension
What are the three types of contractility that a muscle can experience?
isometric concentric eccentric
Define contusion?
a region of injured tissue or skin in which blood capillaries have been ruptured; a bruise
Muscle contusions are rated in accordance with the extent to which the *blank* of the associated joint is impaired?
What is the mechanism of a contusion?
What are some signs and symptoms of contusions?
onset: acute pain: localized ecchymosis (discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding): if superficial restrictions in range of motion swelling associated nerve compression
How is contusion severity rated?
rated by ROM
What is 1st degree contusion severity?
little or no restriction
What is 2nd degree contusion severity?
noticeable reduction of ROM
What is the 3rd degree contusion severity?
severe restriction of ROM
What is the concern about muscle contusions?
can lead to muscle strain
During soft-tissue healing the inflammatory phase is from what days?
0-6 days
What happens during the inflammatory phase (0-6 days) of soft-tissues?
acute or chronic inflammation possible exudate forms mechanisms for stopping blood flow
What are the mechanisms for stopping blood flow during the inflammatory phase (0-6 days)?
local vasoconstriction platelet reaction coagulation cascade
What mechanism brings neutrophils and macrophages to clean the are via phagocytosis during the inflammatory phase?
Mast cells release what?
heparin histamine bradykinin
What does heparin do?
thins the blood and prolongs clotting
Histamine promotes what?
further vascodilation
What does bradykinin do?
opens the blood vessel walls; causes pain
Where does the inflammatory phase usually occur?
on the zone of primary injury
During the inflammatory phase what forms?
hematoma forms
During the inflammatory phase what occurs?
How does edema help in the inflammatory phase?
increased permeability and pressure within the vessels forces a plasma exudate into the interstitial tissue
What are the four major points to remember for inflammation (0-6 days)
- vasoconstriction promotes increased blood viscosity, reducing blood loss through bleeding - the platelets reaction initiates clotting and releases growth factors that attract reparative cells to the site - the coagulation cascade affects clot formation - the complement and kinin cascades provoke vasodilation and increase blood vessel wall permeability, facilitating, the k9i99iimigration of neutrophils and macrophages in plasma exudate to cleanse the site through phagocytosis
What are the components of bones?
diaphysis (shaft - hollow cylindrical; medullary cavity - shock potential improves)
What is the epiphysis of bones?
ends of long bones
What are at the ends of epiphysis of bones?
epiphyseal plate - cartilaginous disk found near ends of long bones
What is the periosteum?
sheath that covers bone and life support system
Longitudinal bone growth continues until?
epiphysis plates close
Diameter bone growth can continue until?
can continue to grow through the lifespan
The internal composition of long bones consist of what two type of tissues?
cortical and cancellous
What is cortical tissue?
compact bone tissue of high density (low porosity)
Where is cortical tissue on the bone?
Cortical tissue of bone can withstand *blank* stress but *blank* strain?
greater stress and less strain
Cancellous tissue of bone can be defined as
bone tissue of low density (high porosity)
Where can cancellous bone tissue be found?
Cancellous bone tissue can tolerate?
can tolerate more strain
What are some mechanical forces that affect bones?
tension, compression, shear, bending, torsion
Bones are stronger at resisting what type mechanical forces than both tension and shear
Type of bone fracture is determined by what two factors?
force applied the health and maturity of bone at the time of injury
What type of fracture is defined as the bone breaking cleanly but ends do not break the skin?
simple (closed)
Which fracture type of defined as the bone ends penetrate through soft tissue and skin?
compound (open)
What type of bone fracture is defined as "occurring more frequently on flat bones when the broken portion is driven inward"
What type of bone fracture is defined as " the break occurs in a straight line across the bone"
What type of bone fracture is defined as "bone fragments into several pieces"
What type of bone fracture is defined as "break occurs diagonally when torsion occurs on one end while the other is fixed"
What type of bone fracture is defined as "separation involving the epiphysis of the bone"
epiphyseal fracture
What type of fracture can be defined as "jagged bone ends are S-shaped when excessive torsion is applied to a fixed bone"
What type of bone fracture is defined as "bone breaks incompletely, as a green stick breaks"
Which type of bone fracture is defined as "bone fragment is pulled off by an attached tendon or ligament"
What type of bone fracture is defined as "the bone is impacted or driven into, another pieced of bone"
What fracture can result from repeated loading with lower magnitude forced; and can become worse over time?
stress fracture
Injury to growth plate could result in?
alteration in normal growth
What are the 3 phases of bony tissue healing?
acute inflammatory phase proliferative phase maturation phase
What is the acute inflammatory phase of bony tissue healing?
formation of hematoma and inflammatory response
What is the proliferative phase of bony tissue healing?
osteoclasts - resorb damaged tissue; osteoblasts - deposit new bone; callus formation
What is the maturation phase of bony tissue healing
continued activity of osteoblasts and osteoblasts; remodeling of bone
What phase is known for remodeling the bone
maturation phase
Explain the stages of bony tissue healing?
1.) immediate effects of injury (damage to surrounding tissue with bleeding; dead tissue) 2.) After 4-5 days inflammatory reaction (fibrocartilage forming; dead tissue being removed by phagocytes and macrophages, new blood vessels) 3.) after first week early bone regeneration (periosteal growth) 4.) after three weeks well formed callus (deposition of minerals in callus, increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity) 5.) weeks to months after injury remodeling of callus 6.) months after injury well healed fracture site invisible
What are muscle spasms?
involuntary contractions of muscle, typically harmless and temporary, but can be painful
What are the main causes of muscle spasms?
overuse of a muscle, dehydration, muscle strain or simply holding a position for a prolonged period