Exam #1

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test

177 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (177)
the structure of an organism
applied anatomy
also known as clinical anatomy; application of anatomical study; treatment & diagnosis of a disease
descriptive anatomy
description of individual body parts; no reference to disease
pathological anatomy
changes in structures & how they relate to different types of diseases
the study of the function of the living organism and its parts, as well as the chemical processes involved
midsaggital plane
cuts the body in right and left halves
transverse planes
cuts upper and lower halves of the body
frontal plane (coronal)
results in front and back portions of the body
anterior (ventral)
front surface of the body
posterior (dorsal)
toward the back
towards the head
epithelial tissue
superficial (outer) layer of mucous membranes and the cells making up the skin (surface covering of body and linings of cavities/passageways); provides a barrier, like skin
connective tissue
composed of intercellular material, known as the matrix, to which the cells are bound, can be solid, liquid, gel-like; supports and protects
muscular tissue
contractile tissue; capable of being stimulated to contract; consists of voluntary (striated), involuntary (smooth), and cardiac muscle
nervous tissue
highly specialized communicative tissue; consists of neurons that take on a variety of forms; transmits info between neurons, sensory receptors
tissue aggregates
conjunction/collection of different tissues into a mass
sheet-like membrane surrounding organs
bind organs together or holds bones to bones or cartilage
attach muscle to bone or cartilage
along with cartilage provide the structure for the body, articulating by means of joints
the union of bones with other bones, or cartilage with other cartilage
axial skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs - 80 bones
appendicular skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs - 126 bones
point of attachment; least amount of movement
point of attachment; moves as a result of muscle contraction
striated muscles
also known as skeletal muscle because it is the muscle used to move skeletal structures; voluntary/conscious control
smooth muscles
muscular tissue of the digestive tract and blood vessels, involuntary control
cardiac muscles
composed of cells that connect in a net-like fashion
muscles that move a structure
muscles that oppose movement
muscles that stabilize structures
respiratory system
breathing for speech
phonatory system
production of voiced sounds
articulatory/resonatory system
used to alter the characteristics of the sounds fo speech
nervous system
related to the central nervous system's control of speech process
the exchange of gas between organism and its environment; requires muscular effort; goal is oxygenation of blood and elimination of carbon dioxide
respiratory system functions
- supplies the body with oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide - filters the air we breathe in - assists in producing sound - contains receptors for smell - rids the body of some excess water and heat - helps regulate blood pH
Boyle's Law
all forces in nature seek balance and equilibrium - forms the basis for movement of air into and out of the lungs - if you decrease the volume the air pressure will increase
vertebral column
33 segments of bone with a rich set of fossa & protuberances designed for function; supports ribs, houses spinal column, helps with movements
cervical vertebrae
superior articular facet
aids some movement; connects vertebrae together
spinous process
attachment for muscles
vertebral foramen
opening for spinal cord
corpus (CV)
transverse process
attachment for muscles
7 true ribs
direct attachment to the sternum
3 false ribs
indirectly attach to the sternum
2 floating ribs
do not attach to the sternum
elevate during inspiration
3 components: - manubrium - corpus - xiphoid process
attachment for clavicle & 1st rib
Corpus (S)
attachment for 5 more ribs
Xipohoid process
anterior most attachment of diaphragm
respiratory mucosa
a layer of cells that secrete mucus; found in nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx & trachea, can trap contaminants
- provides an airway for respiration, moistens and warms entering air, filters and cleans inspired air, resonating chamber for speech, detects odors in the air stream - internal nares, external nares, nasal conchae
Internal nares
opening to exterior
external nares
opening to pharynx
nasal conchae
folds in the mucous membrane that increase air turbulence and ensures that most air contacts the mucous membranes
- common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems - originates posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and extends inferiorly near the level of the bifurcation of the larynx and esophagus - common pathway for both air and food - force swallowed food into the esophagus - nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
lower respiratory tract
- conducting airways - respiratory portion of the respiratory system
conducting airways
- trachea - bronchi - up to terminal bronchioles
respiratory portion of the respiratory system
- respiratory bronchioles - alveolar ducts - alveoli
flexible tube; 11 cm; 15-20 c-shaped tracheal cartilages; starts @ end of larynx; becomes left & right bronchi @ carina; lined by cilia
"voice box," prevents swallowed materials from entering the lower respiratory tract (reflexive cough); conducts air into the lower respiratory tract; produces sounds; 9 pieces of cartilage
sound production
- inferior ligaments = true vocal folds - superior ligaments = vestibular folds/false vocal folds
bronchial tree
- a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that originate from the left and right primary bronchi - terminate in terminal bronchioles - foreign bronchioles are more likely to lodge in the primary bronchus
small air sacs; each lung contains approx. 300-400 million
gas exchange
can take place in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
- apex - projects superiorly to a point that is slightly superior and posterior to the clavicle, top portion - base rests upon the muscular diaphragm
left lung
- divided into 2 lobes by oblique fissure - smaller than right lung (to fit in cardiac region) - cardiac notch accommodates the heart
right lung
- divided into 3 lobes by oblique and horizontal fissure - located more superiorly in the body due to liver on the right side
the outer surface of each lung and the adjacent internal thoracic wall are lined with this serous membrane
visceral pleura
the outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by this
pleural cavity
the potential space between the serous membrane layers
pleural effusion
occurs when fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers; this can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs
abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall; may interfere with normal breathing
quiet inspiration
needs only one muscle - elastic recoil: after muscles are stretched they recoil to their pre-stretched position
forced inspiration
calls on many more muscles
primary muscle of inspiration - divides the thoracic from the abdominal cavity - increases the vertical dimension of the thorax and provides for inhalation - muscles radiate out from central tendon
external intercostals
- raise the ribs - significant for speech
parasternal portion of internal intercostals
helps elevate and slightly rotate ribs when expands
levator costarum
elevates ribs
serratus posterior superior
elevates ribs 2-5; upper ribcage of rib cage
- elevation of chin - helps elevate sternum and anterior portion of rib cage
scalenes (anterior, middle, posterior)
- stabilizes head; facilitates rotation - elevate first and second ribs
checking action
requires the recruiting of the intra-abdominal muscles which allows you to control the release of air and release it little by little
transverse abdominus
acts as antagonist to diaphragm
external oblique
lowers ribs; antagonist to diaphragm
internal oblique
lowers ribs
rectus abdominus
lowers ribs; powerful vertical muscle
quadratus lumborum
draws 12th ribs downwards
passive expiration
we let the forces inherent to the tissues restore the system to a resting position after inspiration (driven by forces of elasticity and gravity); natural restorative processes
active expiration
we use muscular effort to push the air out of the lungs; involvement of the muscles
- 1/2 active forces in passive expiration - lungs are highly elastic, porous, sponge-like tissue - tend to expand as soon as compression is released, volume increases
- when standing/sitting upright, gravity acts on ribs to pull them back after they expanded - also works to maximize overall capacity by pulling abdominal viscera down, leaving more room for lungs
gas exchange
1) ventilation 2) distribution 3) perfusion 4) diffusion
actual movement of air in the conducting respiratory pathway
air is distributed to the alveoli
oxygen is supplied to the capillaries that supply the alveoli
the actual gas exchange across the alveolar capillary membrane
the amount of air the lungs can hold; measured amount
refers to volumes that express psychological limits; represent a functional combination of volumes (a # of volumes combined together)
tidal volume (TV)
volume of air exchanged within one cycle of respiration; normal inspiration and expiration when breathing quietly
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
volume of air that can be expired following passive, tidal expiration (aka resting lung volume); extra air after tidal expiration
residual volume (RV)
volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation; air cannot be exhaled no matter what
total lung capacity (TLC)
sum of all the volumes (TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV)
vital capacity (VC)
total volume of air that can be inhaled following a maximal exhalation (VC = IRV + TV + ERV)
functional residual capacity (FRC)
volume of air in the lungs at the end of passive exhalation (FRC = ERV + RV)
inspiratory capacity (IC)
maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration (IC = TV + IRV)
pressures of the respiratory system
- intraoral pressure - subglottal pressure - alveolar pressure - intrapleural pressure - atmospheric pressure
intraoral pressure
pressure within the oral cavity
subglottal pressure
pressure beneath the vocal folds
alveolar pressure
pressure in the alveoli
intrapleural pressure
pressure between lung pleura
atmospheric pressure
pressure in surrounding environment
vegetative respiratory cycle
inhalation (through nose); about 40% of cycle: exhalation (usually passive) is 60% followed by prolonged latency before next cycle; controlled by the autonomic nervous system
speech breathing
inhalation (through mouth); about 10% of cycle; controlled exhalation (an active process) is 90% with no latency between cycles; uses checking action to control the exhalation; controlled by the cortical function
also known as voicing, the product of vibrating vocal folds and occurs within the larynx
cricoid cartilage
complete ring resting atop the trachea; most inferior of laryngeal cartilages
thyroid cartilage
largest of cartilages; articulates with cricoid below by means of paired processes that let it rock forward and backward at the joint
arytenoid cartilage
paired, ride on the high-backed upper surface of cricoid, forming posterior point of attachment for VFs
corniculate cartilages
ride on superior surface of each arytenoid and are prominent landmarks in the aryepiglottic folds
cuneiform cartilages
reside within the aryepiglottic folds, provides a degree of rigidity to the folds
leaf-like structure, protective structure that drops to cover larynx during swallow
vocal process
where posterior portion of VFs attach
muscular process
point of attachment for muscles that adduct/abduct the VFs
hyoid bone
forms the union between the tongue and the laryngeal structure; corpus, greater cornu, lesser cornu
extrinsic ligaments
provide attachment between hyoid bone or trachea and cartilages of the larynx - one attachment on laryngeal cartilages; one on a nonlaryngeal structure - major adjustments to larynx - work in concert w/ the articulatory motions of the tongue and many are important in swallowing
intrinsic ligaments
connect the cartilages of the larynx and form the support structure for the cavity of the larynx, as well as that of the vocal folds - origin and insertion on the laryngeal cartilages - makes fine adjustments to the vocal mechanism - opening, closing, tensing, & relaxing VFs
fine structures of vocal folds
- squamous epithelium - superficial lamina propria (SLP) - intermediate lamina propria - deep lamina propria - thyroarytenoid muscle
entry to the larynx from the pharynx
first cavity of the larynx; space between the aditus and the ventricular folds
aryepiglottic folds
comprise the lateral walls of the larynx
laryngeal ventricle
middle space of the larynx that lies between the false and true VFs
space between the VFs
- lateral cricoarytenoid - transverse arytenoid - oblique arytenoid
- posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
glottal tensors
- cricothyroid muscle - thyrovocalis muscle
auxiliary muscles
- thyroepiglotticus - superior thyroarytenoid
cricothyroid joint
change in pitch
articulatory system
system of mobile and immobile articulators brought into contact for the purpose of shaping the sounds of speech
mobile articulators
tongue, lips, pharynx, mandible, and velum
immobile articulators
teeth, hard palate, and alveolar ridge
makes up lower jaw of the face
coronoid process
head articulates with the skull; permits rotation of the mandible
mental symphysis
point of fusion of the two halves
corpus (M)
forms the angle we call the "jaw-line"
mental foramen
hole in which the trigeminal nerve (CNV) passes
mandibular foramen
attachment for the alveolar nerve of trigeminal nerve (CNV); provides sensory innervation for the teeth and gums
makes up the upper jaw of the face; creates the roof of the mouth, nose, and upper dental ridge
orbital process
supports your eyes
anterior nasal spine and nasal crest
seen at midline where nose separates into nostrils
alveolar process
important for holding teeth in an adult maxilla
nasal bones
make up the bridge of your nose
inferior nasal conchae
small scroll-like bones located on the lateral surface of the nasal cavity; articulate with the maxilla, palatine, and ethmoid bones
middle and superior nasal conchae
located above the inferior nasal conchae
an unpaired bone which runs midline to create the inferior and posterior portions of the nasal septum (divides the 2 nasal cavities)
zygomatic bone
makes up the cheekbones
maxillary process
articulates with the maxilla
temporal process
articulates with the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone
frontal process
forms the articulation with the sphenoid bones
obicularis oris muscle
important in both facial expression in speech; kiss requires activation of this muscle
risorius muscle
functions to retract the corners of the mouth along with the buccinator muscle
buccinator muscle
aka bugler's muscle; lies deep to the risorius muscle and follows a parallel course; inserting into the upper and lower obicularis oris
levator labii superioris
this muscle originates from the infraorbital margin of the maxilla, coursing down and into the upper lip
zygomatic minor
begins its downward course from the facial surface of the zygomatic bone
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
courses nearly vertically along the sides of your nose, arising from the frontal process of the maxilla
levator anguli oris
works to draw the corner of the mouth up and medial-ward
zygomatic major
function is to elevate and retract the angle of the mouth, as in smiling
depressor labii inferioris
it originates from the mandible at the oblique line, coursing up and in to insert into the lower lip; contraction of this muscle dilates the opening of the mouth by pulling the lips down and out
depressor anguli oris
aka the triangularis; its fibers converge on the obicularis oris and upper lip at the corner; contraction of this muscle depresses the corners of the mouth and help to compress the upper lip against the lower lip, as well as help produce a frown
mentalis muscle
this muscle arises from the region of the incisive fossa of the mandible, inserting into the skin of the chin below; contraction of this muscle elevates and wrinkles the chin and pulls the lower lip out, as in pouting
mandibular depression