hormones & their functions

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releasing & release-inhibiting hormones
regulate secretion of anterior pituitary hormones
growth hormone (GH)
essential for growth; stimulates bone & soft-tissue growth; regulates protein, lipid, & carbohydrate metabolism
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by adrenal cortex
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones by thyroid gland
stimulates development of breasts and milk secretion by the mammary glands
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
females: stimulates growth & development of ovarian follicles, estrogen secretion males: stimulates sperm production by testis
luteinizing hormone (LH)
females: stimulates ovulation, transformation of ovarian follicle into corpus luteum, & secretion of estrogen & progesterone males: stimulates testosterone secretion by testis
antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin)
decreases urine output by the kidneys; promotes constriction of blood vessels (arterioles)
females: stimulates uterine contractions & milk ejection by the mammary glands males: function unknown
regulates biological rhythms according to day-night cycles
stimulates proliferation & function of T lymphocytes
thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
increase basal metabolic rate; necessary for normal development
promotes calcium deposition in bone; lowers blood calcium levels
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
promotes calcium release from bone, calcium absorption by the intestine, & calcium reabsorption by the kidney tubules; raises blood calcium levels; stimulates vitamin D3 synthesis
mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
stimulate sodium reabsorption & potassium secretion by the kidney tubules
glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone)
promote catabolism of proteins & fats; raise blood glucose levels; adapt the body to stress
androgens (sex hormones)
promote sex drive
stimulates fight or flight response
lowers blood glucose levels; stores energy by promoting protein, triglyceride, & glycogen synthesis
raises blood glucose levels; mobilizes energy by promoting glycogenolysis, glucogenesis
inhibits secretion of pancreatic hormones; regulates digestion & absorption of nutrients by gastrointestinal system
androgens (testosterone, androstenedione)
necessary for sperm production by testis; promote sex drive & development of secondary sex characteristics (ex. facial hair, deep voice, etc.)
estrogens (estradiol)
necessary for follicular development; promote development of secondary sex characteristics (ex. breasts, body fat distribution, etc.)
progestins (progesterone)
promote endometrial growth to prepare the uterus for pregnancy
chorionic gonadotropic, estrogens, progesterone
maintain the corpus luteum; reinforce the actions of hormones secreted by the corpus luteum