mastering biology chapter 2

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-forces between molecules that determine how they group together and interact -creates molecules with charged ends
-the tendency of an atom to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
-charged atom or molecule -positive (+) or negative (-)
ionic bond
-formed by the transfer of electrons -one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion -held together by charge differences
basic unit of a chemical element
-2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds -smallest unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
covalent bond
equally shared pair of outer-shell electrons between 2 atoms
tendency of an atom to have 8 valence electrons
double covalent bond
-2 shared pairs of electrons between atoms -limits atoms to a plane
triple covalent bond
-3 shared pairs of electrons between molecules -limits atoms to a line
polar attraction
weak attraction between 2 polar molecules
nonpolar attraction
weak attraction between nonpolar molecules caused by neighboring molecules disturbing each other's electron movements
polar covalent bond
-bond between 2 different atoms, one positive and one negative -results from the unequal sharing of electrons
nonpolar covalent bond
-atoms share electrons equally -no charge separation to the molecule
water molecule
-can hydrogen bond to 4 other water molecules -contains positive (H+) & negative (O-) poles (different electronegativity values) -held together by polar covalent bonds because O- in water molecules pulls harder on the electrons -has a slightly negative charge near O and a slight positive charge near H -many properties occur due to its attraction among polar molecules
hydrogen bond
-holds water molecules together -H+ of one water molecule is attracted to an O- atom of another water molecule -form, break, and reform with great frequency because they are weak
hydrogen ion (H+)
hydrogen atom that gains or loses an electron
dissociation of water molecules
process in which a hydrogen ion shifts from one water molecule to another
hydroxide ion (OH-)
-water molecule that lost a hydrogen ion -has an extra electron -negatively charged
hydronium ion (H3O+)
-water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion -has an extra proton -positively charged
-sticking together of 2 like molecules (water) -caused by the attraction of opposite charges (polarity)
-sticking together of 2 unlike molecules (water and another substance) -caused by the attraction of opposite charges (polarity)
capillary action
the ability to flow upward against the force of gravity due to cohesion and adhesion
surface tension
-the attraction between water molecules at the surface -measure of the force required to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
specific heat
-amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost before a substance changes temperature -water resists temperature change due to it absorbing energy by disrupting hydrogen bonds before evaporation can occur
heat of vaporization
-cooling of a surface as a liquid evaporates -while sweating, fastest-moving water molecules break every hydrogen bond and escape, carrying away the heat
-measure of how compact atoms or molecules are within a substance -amount of mass in a given volume -ice is less dense than water because the molecules in its lattice are further apart
-liquid that dissolves the solute -water is a universal solvent due to its polarity
-particle or liquid that gets dissolved in the solvent
mixture in which a substance dissolves into another
a substance formed by chemically combining two or more elements
a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together
mixture in which the particles are spread throughout the liquid without dissolving in it
uniform throughout a mixture
not uniform throughout a mixture
pH scale
-measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions -logarithmic (powers of 10)
-increases hydrogen ion concentration -pH less than 7
base (alkali)
-increases hydroxide ion concentration -pH more than 7
-equal concentration of H+ and OH- -pH of 7
-accepts H+ when they are in excess and donates H+ when their concentration drops in a solution -helps maintain pH of bodily fluids (homeostasis)
-level of classification larger than a kingdom -3 main domains
Bacteria/Archaea Domain
contains prokaryotic organisms (found in the Monera Kingdom)
Eukarya Domain
contains eukaryotic organisms (found in the Protista, Plantae, Fungi, or Animalia Kingdoms)
biological hierarchy
-atom -molecule -organelle -cell -tissue -organ -organ system -organism -population -community -ecosystem -biome -biosphere
cellular structure specialized to perform a distinct function
-Basic unit of structure and function in all living things -Compose unicellular/multicellular organisms -First level of life
material in plants/animals consisting of specialized cells and their products
-self-contained -does a specific job in an organism -made up of certain tissues
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions
an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form
all organisms that constitute a specific species in a specified habitat
all the populations in a given area
a system formed by the interaction of a community (biotic factors) with their physical environment (abiotic factors)
naturally occurring community of flora & fauna occupying a major habitat
parts of the land, sea, & atmosphere in which organisms are able to live
characteristics of life
-universal genetic code -response to stimuli -growth & development -energy processing -evolutionary adaptation -reproduction -homeostasis -cells
universal genetic code
-All organisms use DNA molecules to carry genetic information from generation to generation -DNA & RNA store information necessary to live, grow & reproduce
response to stimuli
Organisms adjust & respond to changes in their internal/external environments
increase in size
process of change during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
energy processing
-The use of chemical energy to power an organism's activities & chemical reactions -Organisms obtain & use materials/energy
-All the chemical reactions within an organism -Catabolism and anabolism
evolutionary adaptation
-An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance an organisms' ability to survive & reproduce in specific environments -Over generations, living things evolve
-The reproduction of offspring through sexual/asexual processes -All living things make new similar living things
asexual reproduction
-Type of reproduction in which a single parent reproduces by itself -Produces offspring exactly the same as itself
sexual reproduction
-Type of reproduction in which cells from 2 parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism -Combination of information from both parents results in diversity
-Process by which organisms maintain stable conditions during changes in the environment -Ensures that an organism's body functions at optimal condition
microscope base
Supports the microscope.
Used to carry the microscope.
Platform where the slide with the specimen is placed.
stage clips
Holds the slide in place on the stage.
-Magnifies the image for the viewer. -Contains the ocular lens
revolving nosepiece
Contains the objective lenses -Rotates to allow the user to switch between different objective lenses.
Objective lenses
Low-, medium-, and high-power lenses that further magnify the specimen at different intensities.
Coarse adjustment knob
Large knob used for focusing the image under low-power (general focusing).
Fine adjustment knob
Smaller knob used for focusing the image with the medium- and high-power objectives (fine-tuning).
Controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen.
Light source
Provides light for viewing the specimen.
control group
-does not receive the variable -provides a baseline for the conclusion of the experiment
experimental group
receives the variable that the researcher manipulates
-any factor, trait, or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types -only one variable per experiment in order to easily determine how the change affected the result
independent variable
-The experimental factor that is manipulated -Placed on the x-axis
dependent variable
-Variable directly affected by the independent variable -Placed on the y-axis
-values that do not change during experiments -provides a baseline for the conclusion of an experiment
total magnification
power of the objective (4x, 10x, 40x) times the power of the eyepiece (10x)