Quiz 2 (Handling and Husbandry)

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Something essential a plant/animal obtains from its environment for growth and maintenance of life
Process of breaking down food stuffs into chemical substances that can utilized by the body to support life
Classification of Diet
Carnivore, Herbivore, and Omnivore
An animal that eats meat only
An animal that eats meat and plants
An animal that eats plants
Inadequate or unbalanced consumption of nutrients
What can malnutrition cause?
Disease and predisposing to disease
Classification of Nutrients
Water, macronutrients, and micronutrients
What is the most important nutrient?
Essential Nutrients
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Functions of Water
- Vital role in almost all metabolic processes - Maintains electrolyte concentrations - Major component of blood - Involved in thermoregulation (temp. regulation) - Transport medium - Provides shape and structure to organs
What can cause increased water demand?
Critically ill patients, extreme temperatures, and high energy outputs
What are the 2 ways animals source water?
Drinking and food
A negative fluid balance (Body using or losing more water than it is taking in)
Causes of Dehydration
Excessive vomiting/diarrhea, Polyuria (increased urination) due medical conditions, Anorexia, Trauma (blood loss or burns), Neglect
Clinical Signs of Dehydration
Decreased skin elasticity, tacky mucous membranes, prolonged tissue perfusion times, and sunken eyes
What are macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
What is energy?
Property deprived from diet (typically macromolecules) that is used by cells to fuel all body functions
How is energy produced in an animal's body?
Digestion breaks macronutrients down into their structural units that the body absorbs these units into bloodstream to be utilized for ATP production. ATP is produced in cells using Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport System.
Carbohydrate Function
Major source of energy that can stored in liver as Glycogen and adipose tissue as fat
What is the structural unit of carbohydrate?
One sugar unit (ex. Glucose)
Two sugar units (Sugars, sucrose)
Numerous sugar units (Ex. Starches, cellulose)
Soluble Carbohydrates
Carbs that can be dissolved by animals and are broken down by amylase
Insoluble Carbohydrates
Carbs that can not be dissolved by animals and are broken down by cellulose
What is considered a soluble carbohydrate?
Sugars and starches
What is considered an insoluble carbohydrate?
Anything that contains cellulose (Hay, grasses, gums, pectin)
How are insoluble carbs get digested?
Digested in small intestine through microbial fermentation (Microbes create cellulase enzymes)
Importance of fiber for non-herbivore
- Stabilizes gut motility - Supports colon health - Increased bulk + water content in large intestine - Dilutes other macronutrients to induce weight loss
What is the structural unit for fats?
Fatty acids and glycerol
Fats/Lipids Function
Provides energy, increases palatability and adds texture, provides essential fatty acids, transports and distribute fat soluble vitamins, used to create cell membranes and sex hormones
What makes up a fat?
One glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains (Triglyceride)
How are lipids digested?
Using Lipase enzyme in pancreas, lipids are broken into components (1G and 3FAs) used to create ATP
Where is excess lipids stored?
Adipose tissue
2 Categories of Lipids
Saturated and Unsaturated
2 Categories of Unsaturated fats (Where and how many double bonds are present)
Monounsaturated: One double bond Polyunsaturated: Multiple double bonds
Saturated fats
Solid at room temperature, referred as fats, typically animal based with no double bonds
Unsaturated fats
Liquid at room temperature, referred as oils, typically plant based with some double bonds present
Fatty Acid Families
Omega 3, Omega 6, Omega 9 fatty acids
What are Omega 3, 6, 9 fatty acids good for?
Skin, hair, hooves, horns
What are the function of essential fatty acids?
Essential for normal body functions (like Kidney + Reproductive functions, membrane formation, and prostaglandin production)
What deficiencies happen without the proper amount of fatty acids?
Dull hair coat, hair loss, susceptibility to infection or poor wound healing
What is the structural unit for proteins?
Amino acids
What is the function of proteins?
Used in tissue growth and repair; serves enzymes, hormones, and antibodies; used to make hemoglobin, used as energy
How are proteins made?
Amino acids linked together with peptide bonds
What determines type and function of protein?
Type and order of amino acid
How are proteins digested?
Proteins are broken down into amino acids in the small intestine. Amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream and sent to liver for reconstruction into the body.
Can amino acids be produced by the body?
Typically, no. If so, they are not produced fast enough to meet requirements for the body. They must be provided by the animal's diet.
How many amino acids are considered essential?
10 (11 for cats!)
Is protein be used for energy?
If the body can't meet energy requirements with carbs and fats, the body will use protein for energy. Protein is NOT a good source of energy.
Anabolic Pathway
Proteins are broken down in to amino acids and are circulated throughout the body to build new body tissues. Any unused amino acids are utilized as energy and stored as glycogen
Catabolic Pathway
Energy demands are not met by diet, and body will break down body proteins into amino acids and use it for energy
What are the two types of micronutrients?
Vitamins and minerals
What are macrominerals expressed as? (What units does it use?)
What are microminerals expressed as? (What units does it use?)
What are minerals?
Inorganic substances essential to life
How many minerals are essential to mammals?
At least 18
Macrominerals Examples
Sodium + Chloride, Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulfur
Microminerals Examples
Zinc, Selenium, Manganese, Iodine, Fluorine, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Boron, Molybdenum, Cobalt
What minerals are required for skeletal structure maintenance?
Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium
What minerals are required for acid base balance or fluid balance?
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride
What minerals are required for cellular function?
All Minerals
What minerals are required for nerve conduction?
Potassium, Magnesium
What minerals are required for muscle contraction?
Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium
Which amino acid is essential for only cats?
What can calcium toxicity cause?
Problems with iron absorption and kidney function, reduction of copper absorption, may cause magnesium deficiency
What can iron toxicity cause?
Alimentary disturbances, reduced growth, phosphorus deficiency, reduction of copper absorption
What can copper toxicity cause?
As accumulation happens in liver, can cause necrosis of liver walls, jaundice, loss of appetite
What can iodine toxicity cause?
Reduction in weight gain, reduction in feed intake, reduced egg production in chickens
What can manganese phosphorus toxicity cause?
Depressed appetite, retarded growth
What can zinc toxicity cause?
Depressed food consumption, induced copper deficiency
What can selenium toxicity cause?
Dullness, stiffness in joints, reduced food intake, loss of hair, acute poisoning (leads to death)
What can phosphorus toxicity cause?
Calcium deficiency, bone malformation, fractures
What can sodium chloride toxicity cause?
Nervousness, weakness, seizure, and death usually associated with low intake of water
What are vitamins?
Organic substances that come from the diet
What are the 2 categories that vitamins are sorted in?
Fat and water soluble (based on absorption in intestinal tract)
How do fat soluble vitamins work?
They bind to lipids in the small intestine and are absorbed in lipids
What are examples of fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamin A, D, K
Where are excess fat soluble vitamins stored?
Adipose tissue
How do water soluble vitamins work?
They are dissolved in water in small intestine and absorbed when water is absorbed
What are examples of water soluble vitamins?
Vitamin B, C
Where are excess water soluble vitamins stored?
They are exerted in urine within a few hours of ingestion
What is Vitamin A?
Coming from animal and plant forms (animal tissues and colorful veggies), this vitamin helps immune health, bone resorption, spermatogenesis, eye health, and epithelial cell differentiation
What is Vitamin D?
Coming from animal and plant forms, this vitamin helps with calcium and phosphorus balance, bone mineralization and resorption, and insulin synthesis
What vitamin needs sunlight to be activated for animals?
Vitamin D
What is Vitamin E?
Coming from plant based sources, it helps with antioxidation and maintaining cell membrane integrity
What is Vitamin K?
Coming from animal and plant based sources, it helps with blood clotting and regulation of bone growth
How many B vitamins are there?
What is Vitamin B?
Coming from animal and plant based sources, it helps with multiple metabolic functions and is components in glycolysis and Krebs's cycle.
What is Vitamin C?
Coming from citrus fruits, leafy green plants, and vegetables, it helps as an antioxidant, creation of collagen, immunity, and wound healing
What can Vitamin A toxicity cause?
Hair loss and blurred vision
What can Vitamin D toxicity cause?
Nausea, weakness, irritability, brain or liver damage, jaundice, and destruction of red blood cells
What can Vitamin E toxicity cause?
Problems with absorption of other fat soluble vitamins
What can Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) toxicity cause?
Permanent nerve damages
What can Vitamin B3 (Niacin) toxicity cause?
Itching, skin flushing, and gastrointestinal distress
How do you perform a nutritional assessment?
Medical evaluation on animal's current nutritional health (Physical exam and nutritional history)
What is the parts of the physical exam when checking for nutrition issues?
Body Condition Score (BCS), Weight, Coat and skin health, Oral health
What is the parts of the nutritional history?
Current diet, current feeding method, current energy output
What about skin health can indicate nutritional imbalance?
Dry, flakey skin and/or dull hair coat
What about oral health can affect nutrition issues?
Painful mouth affects appetite and ability to chew
What is ideal weight compared to BCS?
Animal's weight at ideal BCS
What is the number one form of malnutrition?
What are the risk factors to developing obesity?
Genetics/Breed disposition, gonadectomy (lowers metabolic rate and loss of hormones can cause increased appetite), age, food/feeding, hypothyroidism, and decreased exercises
What are health risks associated with obesity?
Diabetes, anesthetic complications, hypertension, degenerative joint + orthopedic disease, cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular disease
What is a foal?