Behavioral Neuro PSY209: Exam 1 Content

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What is biopsychology?
the connection between brain and behavior
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Alternative Names for Behavioral Neuroscience
behavior biology, biopsychology
What does the nucleus contain?
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What purpose do dendrites serve?
they collect neurotransmitters
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How does an action potential work?
It moves through the axon, while the myelin sheath protects it
Myelin Sheath
Fatty layer that ensures the electrical signal moves efficiently
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How many neurons do we have?
100 billion
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How many neurons are connected to one another at a time?
10 thousand
Gap contact points that allow for signals to pass from one neuron to the next
How many synapses are in your brain?
100 trillion+
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Is an organism with a bumpy or smooth brain smarter?
Why are bumpier brains smarter?
More surface area: 18 sq ft
Bumps in the brain
trenches in the brain
Disciplines of biopsychology
neuro...anatomy, chemistry, endocrinology, pharmacology, pathology, physiology
How old is the discipline of neuroscience?
About 73 years old
All behavior is the product of interactions among...
genes (based on evolution), experience, and perception of the situation
natural selection
environmental selection pressures dictate the fittest, not best
survival of the fittest
whatever fits environment the best is what promotes survival
What defined the evolution of behavior?
social dominance and courtship displays
social dominance
establishing hierarchy reduces aggression
courtship display
special method of finding a mate
Taxonomic Kingdom classification, in order
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
based on anatomical and physical similarities
The smaller the taxonomic ring...
the more specific it is
What idea is evolution based on?
that we share a common ancestor
How old is the common human ancestor?
4.6 billion years
Human took about _______ years to start being humans
a billion
How long ago did bacteria produce the atmosphere?
2.3 billion years ago
When did multi-cellular organisms show up?
about 6 billion years ago
When did chordates first appear?
450 mya
When did vertebrates first show up?
About 25 million years after chordates
What do chordates have?
a rudimentary brain and spine
What do vertebrates have?
When did amphibians first come about?
about 410 million years ago
Why are amphibians evolutionarily fit?
They could go on both land and water, meaning more resources and better safety
How long ago did reptiles come about?
about 300 million years ago
Where do reptiles lay eggs?
On land
Why are reptiles evolutionarily fit?
Can survive in both land and water
When did mammals first appear?
200 million years ago
What species began early human lineage?
Who was Lucy?
Australopithecus, a 4 ft humanoid
When did homosapiens first appear?
about 200 thousand years ago
Evolution is NOT
How does evolution progress?
traits for the environment are selected over time
What species did the modern human evolve from?
Homoerectus, Homoneaderthalis
When did homoerectus die?
About 150 thousand years ago
When did homoneanderthalus die?
30 thousand years ago
How old is oral language?
~40 thousand years old
How old is written language?
about 5 thousand years old
What marks a civilization?
Agriculture; less nomadic societies
What creation stopped us from being nomadic?
How long ago did we stop being nomadic?
About 10 thousand years ago
What is the correlation between brain size an intelligence?
There is none
Do brain and body weight correlate?
How do species become more intelligent over time?
Growth in the cerebrum means higher cognitive function
What does evolutionary psychology do?
it emphasizes importance of adaptation, reproduction, and more in explaining behavior
Why is evolutionary psych flawed?
it takes behaviors from the past and tries to apply them today
Why are most evolutionary psychology theories not falsifiable?
No access to concrete evidence
Who proposed one-sided evolution?
David Buss
One sided evolution
hunter-gatherer society explains evolution; too simple
bi-directional evolution
humans change too much; we can overcome genetic disposition
Who was Mendel?
Naturalist and "father of genetics"
What did Mendel study?
Pea plants and mice
What did he conclude about breeding traits?
They are more individualistic
Dichotomous traits
traits that occur in one form or the other, never in combination
genes that code for a specific trait
same genes
different genes
dominant trait
expressed trait
recessive trait
a gene that is overruled by a dominant trait
When do recessive traits appear?
When there are two of them together passed on`
the actual genetic coding
the physical expression
Mendelian principles
Principles of genetics first studied by Gregor Mendel; namely the property of independent assortment, uniformity, and segregation
Principle of Independent Assortment
whichever allele is passed down is totally independent to other traits
Principle of Uniformity
mom and dad pass on alleles randomly and whichever is passed on is the phenotype
Principle of Segregation
you receive an allele randomly from mom
How many chromosome do we have?
What do chromosomes contain?
What does DNA contain?
Genes are your....
What are the four nucleotide bases?
Nucleotide Base: A
Nucleotide Base: C
Nucleotide Base: T
Nucleotide Base: G
A pairs with...
C pairs with...
What does a sequence of nucleotide bases create?
a gene
How many ATCG pairs are there?
3 billion
Each parent transmits ______ their chromosomal material
What do incorrect nucleotide base pairings create?
Are mutations usually good or bad?
When are mutations good?
When they increase survival
What does a structural gene contain?
protein recipe
What is gene expression?
Making a protein
What is the function of an operator gene?
Turning structural genes on and off
What signals the operator gene to turn the structural gene off and on?
DNA binding protein
Do proteins make other proteins?
What binds to the operator gene?
Gene Expression proteins
mRNA and tRNA
How does DNA expose genes?
By unraveling and unzipping
What does the mRNA do?
messenger, contains the information from DNA to make direct copy protein by translation
Where does the mRNA go after transcription?
What does the mRNA do in the cytoplasm?
Hooks to ribosome
What does the ribosome do after the mRNA hooks onto it?
it translates the message
The ribosome reads the message from the mRNA by....
Reading it three nucleotide bases at a time
Three nucleotide bases is a...
Where does the tRNA go after translation?
It floats to the cytoplasm
What does the ribosome ask the tRNA to do?
Continue dropping off nucleotide bases
What happens when the tRNA drops off enough nucleotide bases?
It creates a chain of amino acids
What does a chain of amino acids make?
a protein, or a gene
What is an anti-codon?
a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
What was the goal of the Human Genome Project?
identify all 20-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine sequences, store the information, improve data analysis tools, transfer genetic technology to the private sector, and address legal, ethical, and social issues.
When was the HGP completed?
Who funded the HGP and how long did it last?
the US Dept. of Energy, for 13 years
What is Cartesian Dualism?
Descartes's view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter. (Isolationist)
everything you are comes down to the electrical signals in your brain
Nature v. Nurture
Nature: Product of our genes and coding Nurture: Product of our environment and upbringing
Is it Nurture or Nature?
___________ was the first example of segregating the mind from the self
Phineas Gage
What are heritability estimates?
measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population or individual are due to genetic factors (nature-leaning)
What is in the CNS?
The brain and spinal cord
What is in the Peripheral nervous system?
The autonomic and somatic systems
Somatic nervous system
the brain interacting with its external environment
Somatic afferent nerves
sensory information coming from your organs to your brain
somatic efferent nerves
motor information coming from brain to skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
regulation of the body's vital functions
Autonomic afferent nerves
carry sensory signals from internal organs to the CNS
autonomic efferent nerves
carry motor signals from CNS to internal organs
efferent sympathetic nerves
fight or flight function
efferent parasympathetic nerves
conservation of energy
Do sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together?
Yes, but they have separate functions
What is the function of the optic nerve?
Where is the optic nerve located?
back of the eye
What does the occulomotor nerve do?
handles eye coordination
Where is the oculomotor nerve located?
What does the trochlear nerve do?
handles eye coordination
where is the trochlear nerve located?
caudal midbrain
What does the trigeminal nerve do?
handle Facial sensations
Where is the trigeminal nerve located?
What does the abducens nerve do?
handles eye movement
Where is the abducens nerve located?
What does the vestibulocochlear nerve do?
handles hearing and balance
Where is the vestibulocochlear nerve located?
What purpose does the glossopharyngeal nerve serve?
oral sensation and taste
What is the vagus nerve?
It operates under the parasympathetic nervous system & decreases heart rate
Where is the vagus nerve?
What is the olfactory bulb?
brain structure that regulates sense of smell
Where is the olfactory bulb?
What does the hypoglossal nerve do?
tongue movement
Where is the hypoglossal nerve?
What is the function of the accessory nerve?
turning your head and raising your shoulders
What are the three main cuts on a brain?
Axial, coronal, and sagittal
Axial cut
coronal cut
anterior to posterior
medial, lateral
towards the nose
towards the back of the brain
towards the top
down towards the chest
towards the middle
from the middle
What do anterior, posterior, dorsal, and ventral all have in common?
The orientation of the physical being in question is subjective. Four legs and two legs look different for the cuts.
What are the five divisions of the brain?
Telencephalon, Diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon
Where is the telencephalon?
the cerebral cortex
Where are the sections of the brain (minus telencephalon) located?
The brain stem
Do you use both sides of your brain?
Left hemisphere "function"
logical decision making and linguistics
right hemisphere "function"
spacial skills, processing of media, emotion
What are the four lobes of the brain?
Occipital, Partietal, temporal, and frontal
Occipital Lobe function
Specialized for vision
Parietal Lobe function
integration of sensory information and attention
Temporal lobe function
memory, language processing, hearing
Frontal lobe function
executive function; reasoning, strategy, emotional regulation, personality
What is part of the subcortical?
The limbic system and basal ganglia
The 4 F's of the Limbic System (Functions)
Feeding, Fleeing, Fighting, and Fornication
Basal Ganglia Function
initiation of voluntary movement, balance
Name the 9 aspects of the Limbic System.
Cingulate gyrus, Pineal gland, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Thalamus, Pituitary gland, Mammillary body
What are the 12 Cranial Nerves?
Olfactory bulb, optic nerve, occulomotor nerve, Trochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, Abducen's nerve, facial nerve, Vestibulocochlear nerve, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Vagus nerve, hypoglossal nerve, accessory nerve
Purpose of the olfactory bulb
Purpose of the optic nerve
Purpose of the occulomotor nerve
eye cooridination
Purpose of the trochlear nerve
eye coordination
Purpose of the trigeminal nerve
facial sensation
Purpose of the Abducen's nerve
eye coordination
Purpose of the facial nerve
facial movement
purpose of the Vestibulocochlear nerve
purpose of the glossopharyngeal nerve
oral sensation and taste
function of vagus nerve
related to parasympathetic nervous system
function of the hypoglossal nerve
tongue movement
function of the accessory nerve
turning your head and raising your shoulders
Features of the Brain Stem
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Midbrain, Pons, Reticular formation, Medulla
What area of the brain is the Thalamus in?
The diencephalon
What does the Thalamus do?
relays sensory information before getting send to the cerebral cortex
What is white matter?
Myelinated axons that transmit information
What does grey matter do?
Processes the information that the white matter transmits
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
part of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid moves
Function of the tegmentum
pain regulation
What are the aspects of the tegmentum?
Periaqueductal grey, red nucleus, substantia nigra (basal ganglia)
What is the red nucleus in charge of?
Sensorimotor information
What part of the brain is responsible for Parkinson's?
The substantia nigra
What part of the brain is the hypothalamus in?
The diencephalon
What does the hypothalamus do?
Controls the pituitary (master) gland, regulates hormones
What part of the brain is the pituitary in?
Function of the pituitary
control the amount of hormones travelling through the body
What part of the brain is the Midbrain in?
What is the midbrain made up of?
The tectum and the tegmentum
What does the tectum contain?
Superior and inferior colliculi