CHEM Chapter 3 Vocab

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law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions of physical changes
law of definite proportions
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of size or sample of source
law of multiple proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd combine with a certain mass of the first is a ratio of small whole numbers
the smallest chemical particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
nuclear forces
short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces hold nuclear particles together
atomic number
the number of protons in each atom of an element
atoms of the same element that have different masses
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope
general term for a specific isotope of an element
unified atomic mass unit (1 u)
exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
mole (mol)
amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
Avogadro's number
6.022 141 79 x10^23 - the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance
molar mass
the mass of one mole of a pure substance