many mountains, plateaus, and grasslands, relied on trade by sea
Central and South Africa
has flat or rolling grassland, thick rainforests
Highest mountain in E. Africa
difficult to farm, dry
the ways of living developed by a people inclduing their way of behaving, their knowledge, tools and beliefs
term for monarchy, an early form of government headed by a king or queen
the passing of poems, songs and stories by word of mouth from one generation to another
vast area of relatively dry grasslands called savannas, dotted with a few trees and thorny bushes. South of the Sahara, unpredictable rainfall
city that is like a small country and governs itself
a society in which the vast majority of the people cannot read or write
basic unit of social organization, along with family and clan. royalties are stronger than national identities. rather than individuals own land.
describes a society in which people trace their ancestry through their mothers.
describes a society in which people trace their ancestry throught their fathers.
a person who recites the oral traditions of a tribe or clan. A learned storyteller, entertainer, or historian. Received its information from their father, and retell it orally.
The first West African kingdom by 300 A.D, northeast of the Senegal river, specialized in ironworking. Wealth is based on the gold-salt trade. Powerful kingdom with a strong army, weapons, and a government. Had 44 kings.
main city in Ghana
Niger River Valley
major river valley which contributed to the social, economic, and political growth of three ancient African empires--Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
a member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to the fourteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world. (p. 376)
a, City on the Niger River It was founded sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, _______ became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
After the death of Mansa Musa the power of ______ declined...
the most powerful out of the 3 West African empires that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591.
Wealth derived from gold-salt trade.
decline of Songhai
the kings were not as capable as Askia Muhammad, and could not defend the empire against its enemies. Morroco conquered this empire causing the...
Morocco's affect on Songhai
Relations between Morocco and Songhai were strained. Morocco was determined to destroy Songhai and revoke its control over the trans-sharan trade. Morocco later attacked the Songhai empire and destroyed it.
Material used for weapons and tools that became cheap and more widely available around 1000 B.C.E.
a method of exchanging goods by displaying items for acceptance of equal value; merchants and traders do not meet face to face
a short statement of a general truth, one that condenses common experience into memorable form
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
an ancient region in the Nile River Valley, on the site of present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands, horn of Africa, south of Kush; defeated the kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from the Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Axum was introduced to Chritianity through trade and the romans. The King Ezana adopted Christianity and was where Christianity took root for future empires.
How did Axum convert to Christianity?
Morrocan Muslim scholar, and fourteenth-century traveler, wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and western Sudan. His accounts allowed Muslims to learn about each other and non-Muslim areas and a glimpse into the world of that time period. He enforced and encouraged Muslims to follow the principles of the Qu'ran.
Kush’s capital, center for the spread of Egyptian culture
Kushite king in 751 BCE
a major center for the manufacturing of iron weapons and tools
4 centuries of prosperity
Meroe began to decline after...
means war chief
taxing trade items
Rulers grew rich by
gold and salt
Two most important trade items
this had a great impact on the development of the big 3 kingdoms, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Because of West Africa's abundant gold mines and lack of salt generated a great deal of income for all the kingdoms.
religious leader, chief judge, and military commander
Ghana’s ruler acted as a
Islam spread through North Africa by
Islam spread through south of the Sahara by
Ghana ______ gained back its power
capital of Songhai Empire
Sunni Ali and Askia Muhmammad
Two extraordinary Muslim rulers of the Songhai Empire
Songhai lacked (reason of decline)
Empire collapsed by _____, due in part to the British, ending the 1,000 year period of rule by powerful kingdoms and empires in West Africa
Griots were the only way for royal and non-royal communities to communicate because there was no written language(preliterate).
why were griots important?
center of learning
Timbuktu was known as
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
What were the 3 main kingdoms/empires of Ancient West Africa?
warrior and 1st king of the Songhai empire, conquered large amounts of territory along the Niger River
2nd and most powerful king of the Songhai empire, devout muslim who based his teachings on the Qur'an. Created a fair system of taxation and encouraged the establishment of Muslim schools.
this trade item was used for nutrition and preserving food
North African Berber warriors, destroyed the Capital city of Ghana which commenced the beginning of Mali
city in the Songhai empire know for skilled doctors, surgeons, and medicine
movement of peoples, related languages
these peoples quickly established their locations in Eastern and Southern Africa brining along economic and cultural aspects to the area. The spread of these people was seen as a self-concious migration.
joined men of a specific generation and lineage together
Bantu people had a _______ way of life. They didn't believe in one god, but instead the spirits and souls of their ancestors. Charms, rituals, and sacrifices were apart of this worship.
Axum, Meroe, Kush
What 3 kingdoms were apart of EAST Africa?
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
What 3 kingdoms were apart of WEST Africa?
Reason of Meroe's decline
this kingdom declined due to deforestation caused by making coal for smelting iron. The kingdom conquered Axum and become one.
The initial religion of Africa, pushed away by Islam.
Decline of Axum Empire
this kingdom declined due to enviromental changes, soil exhaustion, erosion, and deforestation caused by intense farming.
iron workers, cotton weavers, potters, leather workers, griots
prestigious works of Jenne-Jeno
generated a productive economy, more people could live in smaller areas with hunting way of life
Advantage 1 for Bantu Farmers
Farmers carried dieseases, such as malaria, that native societies weren't immune to
Advantage 2 for Bantu farmers
Bantu people had modern(iron) and better weapons that the locals
Advantage 3 for Bantu Farmers
Besides oral storytelling, griots also were....
A blend of languages and cultures. Many of these peoples accepted Islam as a religion. The Portuguese were intrigued and asked for trading right, but when rejected attacked and conquered the city-states.
The women were rulers
What role women played in Axum?
It is surrounded by water and geographical features such as cataracts and valleys made it hard to enter