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[MICRO 20] LEC 17 - Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance

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[MICRO 20] LEC 17 - Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance
[MICRO 20] LEC 17 - Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance
Superbugs
These could eventually kill more people than cancer. If left unchecked, it can result in 10 million deaths each year by 2050 more than the number of people killed by cancer
Increasing global distribution of pathogens resistant to antimicrobial drugs
One of the greatest threats to human health leading to health crises arising from infections that were once easy to treat
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE Greater volume of antibiotics used = greater changes that antibiotic resistant population develop
1 Longer hospital stays 2 Higher medical cost 3 Increased mortality 4 No more available effective antibiotics
Enumerate the four (4) consequences of Antimicrobial resistance.
Dysbiosis
The imbalance or the maladaptation inside the body, or exposure to harmful bacteria or even an outgrowth or overgrowth of a single type of bacteria
Plasmid DNA
These are small circular fragments of extrachromosomal DNA that can exist in bacterial cells in addition to chromosomal DNA. These are also associated with virulence and antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotics
It is a type of antimicrobial substance active against BACTERIA. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections, and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections.
Salvarsan
It is an antibiotic for the treatment of syphilis
Paul Ehrlich
He developed Salvarsan.
Alexander Fleming
He developed penicillin.
Antimicrobial drugs
Generally, these are medicines that are used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals, and plants.
FALSE Correct statement: Bactericidal - Kills the bacteria and has an irreversible effect Bacteriostatic - Stops the growth of bacteria which are helpful when immune system is competent and has a reversible effect
TRUE or FALSE Bacteriostatic - Kills the bacteria and has an irreversible effect Bactericidal - Stops the growth of bacteria which are helpful when immune system is competent and has a reversible effect
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE Bacteriostatic drugs should not be given to immunocompromised patients because this drug requires aid of the host defenses
1. cell wall 2. protein 3. nucleic acid synthesis
What are the three targets of antibiotics?
HAPPY DAPAT YOU'RE DOING GREAT. KAYA MO 'TO.
HAPPY OR SAD?
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Antibiotics Can Protect the Queen's Men, Servants, and Guards
Mnemonics used for the different classes of antibiotics.
1. Inhibition or regulation of enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis 2. Nucleic acid metabolism repair 3. Protein synthesis 4. Disruption of the membrane structure
Four mechanisms of antibacterial action
Peptidoglycan
Bacterial cells are surrounded by a cell wall made of ___________, which consists of long sugar polymers
Transglycosidases
Peptidoglycan undergoes cross-linking of the glycan strands by the action of _____________.
FALSE Correct statement: Β-lactams and the glycopeptides inhibit cell wall synthesis
TRUE or FALSE Β-lactams and the glycopeptides inhibit cell wall eliminaition.
Cytoplasmic
Protein biosynthesis is catalyzed by ribosomes and __________ factors.
50S
The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of two ribonucleoprotein subunits, the 30S and ____ subunits
fluoroquinolones
These inhibit the enzyme bacterial DNA gyrase, which nicks the double-stranded DNA, introduces negative supercoils and then reseals the nicked ends.
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE A combination of sulpha drugs and trimethoprim acting at distinct steps on the same biosynthetic pathway shows synergy and a reduced mutation rate for resistance
Antimicrobial resistance
It is the loss of effectivity of antimicrobial drugs to kill microorganisms and treat infection.
Antimicrobial resistance
It occurs through mutation in microorganisms or acquisition of genetic material from other bacteria which neutralize or escape the effect of the antimicrobials
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE The innate ability of a bacterial species to resist activity of an antimicrobial agent through its inherent structural or functional characteristics which allow tolerance of a particular drug or antimicrobial class
Efflux pumps
this is used for the pumping out of the drugs or some modifications of target molecules like impermeability, modification or even inactivation.
Vertical gene transfer
Transfer of genetic information including any genetic mutations from the parent to its offsprings
Horizontal gene transfer
Movement of genetic material from a donor organism to a recipient organism that is not its offspring
Transformation
(MECHANISMS OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER) - Uptake of short fragments of naked DNA by naturally transformable bacteria and incorporation of naked DNA
Transduction
(MECHANISMS OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER) - Transfer of genes by bacteriophage - Transfer of DNA material from one bacterium to another via the bacteriophages
Conjugation
(MECHANISMS OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER) - Transfer of genetic material from a donor to a recipient strain of bacteria - Involving the transfer of DNA via sexual pilus and requires cell to cell contact - DNA fragments that contain resistance genes from resistant donors can make previously susceptible bacteria express resistance as coded by this newly acquired resistance genes
Restriction enzymes
(MECHANISMS OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER) Enzymes that cut DNA at specific sequences
Extrinsic resistance mechanism
It happens when bacteria that acquire resistance genes from other bacteria which already have resistance for the harsh environmental conditions
Acquired resistance
It is said to occur when a particular microorganism obtains the ability to resist the activity of an antimicrobial agent to which it was previously susceptible.
1. Producing destructive enzymes to neutralize antibiotics by modifying antimicrobial targets by mutation so that drugs cannot recognize them 2. Removing antimicrobial agents by popping them out from the cell 3. Restricting access of the antibiotic from entering the cell by limiting or changing the size of the opening not fitted to that antibiotic into getting into or penetrating the cell wall 4. Creating bypasses that allow bacteria to function without the enzymes targeted by the antibiotics
Bacteria resist the effects of antibiotics either by:
Antimicrobial surveillance
According to Pfizer, it refers to efforts to monitor changes in populations of microbes to help understand evolving patterns of resistance to anti-infectives. It can be conducted on a global, regional, local country, or healthcare facility basis.
Penicillin
Antibacterial drug used against Streptococcus pneumoniae