GR 7 Science Q1 Exam

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a living thing made up of one or more cells that can perform all the processes needed for life.
organism made up a single cell
Organisms made up of more than one cell
The cells that make up a multicellular
Organisms are specialized and organized to perform specific functions
Multicellular organisms
have more than one level of organization. Ex. oak trees
A tissue
is a group of similar cells that are organized to perform a specific function
Vascular tissue
cells connect together to form a tissue called
different types of tissues that function together form a
Example of an organ
stem of oak tree
Blood vessels
are organs in the shrew made up of epithelial tissue that controls the passage of blood cells, layers of smooth muscle tissue that control the diameter of the vessel and a tough wall of connective tissue
Organ system
is a group of organs that work together to perform body functions
An organism
can have many organ systems that work together to perform all the functions the organism needs to survive
All organisms are made up of
A tissue
has characteristics similar to the cell type with which it is made
The structure of an organ relates to
the function it performs
Most organisms
have organ systems that perform specialized functions
a respiratory system
is an animal organ system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
Organisms need to process
nutrients and take in oxygen
The coordination of systems gives an organism a greater variety of poosible
functions and responses
Average heartbeat for ages 11-14 years old
50-100 BPM
a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body, largest of the blood vessels, rich in oxygen and nutrients, carry materials the cells need
carries blood back to the heart, medium sized
White blood cell
fight disease and infection, destroys harmful germs in the body, largest of the blood cells
Red blood cells
contain hemoglobin that give it the red color, most numerous, carry oxygen to all parts of the body, picks up carbon dioxide waste from the cells
Respiratory system
the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide
3 types of muscle tissue
1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth
Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle and Cardiac muscle
The skeletal system
supports the body and gives it shape; protects the internal organs, such as lungs and brain; stores calcium and other minerals
The brain
is the control center of the nervous system
The brain is divided into 3 main parts
1. cerebrum 2. cerebellum 3. medulla
The spinal cord
Helps carry messages or signals back and forth between your brain and body' conducts sensory information from the peripheral nervous system and conducts information from the brain to various muscle groups and glands
The central nervous system
regulates the activities of the body
are made of specialized cells called neurons that carry messages from one part of the body to the other using electrical signals
The digestive system's function
to turn food into nutrients the body can use for energy and to grow
Mechanical digestion
breaking down food with muscles or teeth
Chemical digestion
breaking down food with acids or enzymes
Food is broken into smaller pieces by teeth and saliva
Food passes through here to go to the stomach
Mechanical and chemical digestion also takes place here to further break down food; giant muscle that squeezes and churns the food, helping to break it down
small intestine
most digestion takes place here, food can stay for up to 4 hours, anything not digested becomes solid waste
large intestine
food that is here is solid waste; is stored here until the body is ready to eliminate it; this entire process takes 6-8 hours
Food is eliminated through the
Excretory system
The main function is to filter blood and remove liquid waste from the body; works with the circulatory, respiratory, endocrine and integumentary systems to maintain the homeostasis of water, ions, pH, blood pressure, calcium, and red blood cells in the body
Main function is to filter waste products out of the blood passing through them; works in part with endocrine system in the formation of red blood cells, and the circulatory system to remove waste from blood
Pear shaped organ that holds urine to allow for urination to be infrequent and voluntary; capacity 400-600 mL;
Emptying the bladder takes place by contraction of smooth muscles
The Endocrine system
a collection of glands that produce and secrete hormones
Function of the endocrine system
to maintain the correct chemical level in the body through feedback
Endocrine system
regulates mood, sleep, growth and development, metabolism, sexual function and reproduction processes
Chemical messengers that communicate information from one set of cells to another; many different hormones move through the bloodstream; each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells
The endocrine system works to maintain stable internal conditions(balance); uses negative and positive feedback mechanisms
located in the upper abdomen; Secretes the hormones insulin (lowers) and glucagon(raises) to control blood sugar levels throughout the day
Reproductive glands
Influence sexual development; ovary (female) produces hormone estrogen; testicle (male) produces hormone testerone
Plant bodies respond to a variety of __
environmental factors
Plants regulate water in their bodies mostly by
Opening and closing their stomata
Stomata open to allow ___ to move in and ___
air; out
Some plant leaves have a ___ coating that helps prevent water ___
waxy; loss
One way plants respond to their environment
by growing toward a light source
plant growing toward a light source
A skeleton can be ___
external; like the exoskeleton of insects
Animals use a variety of structures to __
gather information from the environment
the set of actions taken by an organism in response to stimuli; animals form ___ to survive
Innate behaviors
behaviors that do not require learning or experience
Learned behaviors
behaviors developed through memories and experience and from observing the actions of other animals
information can be stored in the brain as __; allows an animal to respond to its environment more efficiently
energy for living things comes from___
energy in food comes from the ___
the sun
organisms that use light energy from the sun to produce food
organisms that cannot use the sun's energy to make food
Male frogs normally have ___ on their front feet
thickened pads
Frogs can also breath throught their ___
a frogs skeleton provides__, __, and ___
structure, support, protection
frogs have specialized sensory organs to allow them to __ and __
detect prey and avoid predators