Permanent mandates commission
A commission created by the League of Nations to oversee the developed nations’ fulfillment of their international responsibility toward their mandates. Compromise between Wilson’s idealism and European desire for colonies. The people incapable of governing themselves should be governed by developed nations – and this commission should oversee it. =>development towards independence, but the implementation was up to powers
The 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France that divided up the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. Arabs were promised an independent Arab state by UK, but UK signed this agreement that contradicted this promise – Arabs felt bitter and betrayed.
A 1917 statement by British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour that supported the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It did contradictory promises to Middle Eastern Arabs and European Jews.
Treaty of Lausanne
The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey. Turkey after many losses won several victories thanks to Mustafa Kemal against Greece and Britain (did not recognize dismembering of country), resulting in peace and this treaty.
The national assembly established by the despotic shah of Iran in 1906. The establishment was forced, in area of Persia, because of foreign pressure – effort to build unified modern nation. It was impossible, however, as Russia and UK divided spheres of influence, and after Russian revolution, UK filled the power vacuum – installing advisors.
A Jewish collective farm, first established by Zionists in Palestine, on which each member shared equally in the work, rewards, and defense. Jews were because of UK promise moving to Middle East gradually forming a nation. Modernization besides others was because of kibbutz.
A 1916 alliance between the Hindus leading the Indian National Congress Party and the Muslim League. Because of war in Europe – India experienced inflation, high taxes, food shortages and epidemic – reviewing the nationalistic movement. The radicals in National Congress Party (Hindu) signed this Pact, trying to gain same autonomy as Canada.
Loosely translated as “soul force,” which Gandhi believed was the means of striving for truth and social justice through love, suffering, and conversion of the oppressor. Nonviolent resistance
May Fourth Movement
A Chinese nationalist movement against foreign imperialists and warlord rule; it began as a 1919 student protest against the decision of the Paris Peace Conference to leave the Shandong Peninsula in the hands of Japan. Warlords – local military leaders in China holding power (after death of dictator Yuan Shigai – first revolution), leading to wars, corruption, and high taxes. This movement looked to the Russia as a model for their own revolution – again led by Sun Yatsen. He was not a communist, however, his main principle was nationalism.
New Culture Movement
An intellectual revolution beginning in 1916 that attacked traditional Chinese, particularly Confucian, culture and promoted Western ideas of science, democracy, and individualism. Many advocated Marxist socialism, as it provided a way to criticize Western dominance.
Giant conglomerate firms established in Japan beginning in the Meiji period and lasting until the end of World War II. They dominated particular sector of economy (unorganized peasants and farmers), creating financial oligarchy, corruption of government officials, and a weak middle class
The 6,000-mile retreat of the Chinese Communist army in 1934 to a remote region on the northwestern border of China, during which tens of thousands lost their lives. During China civil war, Communist army retreated to distant province before attacks of National army (of National Communist Party)
Five year plan
Launched by Stalin in 1928 and termed the “revolution from above,” its goal was to modernize the Soviet Union and generate a Communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity.
Lenin’s 1921 policy re-establishing limited economic freedom in the Soviet Union in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration.
The belief, formulated in Latin America in the mid-twentieth century, that development in some areas of the world locks other nations into underdevelopment. That means, the first developed countries (UK and USA) hinder economic development of the later industrializing countries.
The belief, held in countries such as the United States in the mid-twentieth century, that all countries evolved in a linear progression from traditional to mature. Help for countries to develop – but USA “helpers” did not always understand local conditions leading to negative consequences and mistrust of USA aid.
People who, through a movement beginning in 1919, sought black solidarity and envisioned a vast self-governing union of all African peoples. Anticolonial nationalism, efforts for end of discrimination.
A cartel formed in 1960 by oil-exporting countries designed to coordinate oil production and raise prices, giving those countries greater capacity for economic development and greater leverage in world affairs. They agreed on embargo after European and USA support of Israel in Yom Kippur War. It disrupted economics – and USA was powerless to reverse it.
An economic and political alliance of twelve European nations formed in 1993 that has since grown to include twenty-eight European nations. Free movement of people and goods, common currency, European parliament (infrastructure and educational investments).
The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the wealthy; the term came to refer to the militant radicals of the city. They demanded political action to guarantee them daily bread.
The well-educated, prosperous, middle-class groups.
State founded in 1809 by Uthman dan Fodio, this African state was based on Islamic history and law (jihad…)
he late-nineteenth-century drive by European countries to create vast political empires abroad.