Modern history key concepts

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Great Mutiny
The last armed resistance to british rule in India - 1857
Indian Civil Service
Bureaucracy that administered the government of India. Entry required one to pass exams only offered in england
Indian national congress
A political assosciation formed in 1885 that worked for Indian self-government
Java war
1825-1830 war between the dutch and the javanese over dutch control of the island
Nguyen dynasty
The last Vietnamese ruling house, lasted from 1802 to 1945
Opium war
1839-1842 war between the british and chinese over limitations on trade and the importation of opium into China
Legal principle that exempts individuals from local war - applicable in China because of agreements reached after China's loss of the opium war
Taiping Rebellion
Rebellion by believers of the religious teachings of Hong Xiuquan - began until 1851, suppressed until 1864
Chinese secret society that blamed the country's problems on foreigners and rose in rebellion in 1900
1911 Revolution
Uprising that ended china's monarchy
Gunboat diplomacy
The imposition of treaties and agreements under the threat of military violence - eg opening of Japan to trade by Commodore Perry
Meiji restoration
The 1867 ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate that restored power of the Japanese emperors
Russo-Japanese war
1904-5 war between Russia and Japan fought over imperial influence and territory in Manchuria
Indentured labourers
Labourers who agreed to a term of employment under a contract
Government by figures who rule through personal charisma and the support of armed followers in Latin America. Large landowners had local political power and refused to give it up in favor of central government - power vacuum for caudillos. However, they only cultivated their own prestige instead of building stable political institutions
The region encompassing the Antilles as well as the lands that bound the Caribbean Sea in Central America and northern South America. Imperial ambition of USA towards Mexico and Circum-Caribbean.
In Latin America, the small number of individuals and families that had monopolized political power and economic resources since the colonial era. Liberalism mainly served them - preserved slavery and concentrated political power + wealth.
Manifest destiny
The doctrine that the United States should absorb the territory spanning from the original Atlantic states to the Pacific Ocean. Territorial expansion at the expenses of Mexico and Indian nations. In Mexico - instability because political leaders could not agree on how the new nation should be governed, and power was mostly in hands of local caudillos.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The 1848 treaty between the United States and Mexico in which Mexico ceded large tracts of land to the United States. After USA expansion westward - war with Mexico 1846 - 1848, after this treaty where Mexico lost half of its territory.
Lerdo Law
An 1856 Mexican law that banned corporate landholdings (such as church and landowners), effort to replace them by small rural farms. Part of Mexico's liberal reforms - Benito Juarez
The establishment of political and economic influence over regions after they have ceased to be formal colonies. Brazil was formally independent from UK, but informally dependent on it as Portugal was in 18th century (colonization country) => negotiation for low import tariffs in Brazil leading to inhibition if industrialization.
Free womb laws
Laws passed across the nineteenth-century Americas that instituted a gradual form of abolition through which children born to slaves gained their freedom. Passed in Spanish America - and with combination of freedom for military service, by the time of abolition of slavery in Latin America, most of the people were already free (Unlike in USA).
- Vast landed estates in Latin America. Government wanted to create many small farms in Argentine, but because they were selling a really large parcels, only few people could afford it, so they made exactly the opposite
The regime of Porfirio Díaz, who presided in Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and again from 1884 to 1911. He created political stability by rewarding supporters and punishing opponents. However, he used modernization and economic development as a justification for range of abuses. Moreover, with foreign investments became land valuable, and therefore were passed some laws resulting in usurpation of land.
Plan de Ayala
Document written by Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution that demanded the government return all land, forests, and waters taken from rural communities. Beginning of Mexican revolution.
A version of anarchism that advocated placing power in the hands of workers' unions. A working class in Brazil and Argentina was gradually created - mostly immigrants from Europe, and this was their ideology that challenged liberalism. General strikes - but only in Mexico it merged with rural unrest.
Monroe Doctrine
An 1823 proclamation that established a U.S. sphere of influence over the Americas by opposing European imperialism on the continent. USA wanted to keep EU influence outside of Latin America (where before USA intervened many times - to protect economics interests). A byproduct of manifest destiny.
Roosevelt Corollary
A supplement to the Monroe Doctrine stating that the United States would correct what it saw as "chronic wrongdoing" in neighboring countries
The glorification of the military as the supreme ideal of the state with all other interests subordinate to it.
Triple Entente
Alliance of Great Britain, France and Russia in WW1
Trench warfare
Fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; used in World War I with a staggering cost in lives and minimal gains in territory.
Total war
A war in which the government controls all aspects of economic and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort
March revolution
The first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which unplanned uprisings led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a transitional democratic government that was then overthrown in November by Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
Petrograd Soviet
A counter-government to the 1917 Russian provisional government (they had to share power), this organization was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals. They weakened provisional government and made radical orders - such as Army No. 1. - stripped officer of their authority and gave it to the elected committees of common soldiers.
War communism
The application of the total-war concept to a civil conflict; the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work. It provided the Red Army with supplies, but also helped normal economics activity. Revolutionary terror also contributed to victory - re-establishing secret police and executing enemies including tsar with family.
The "majority group"; this was Lenin's camp of the Russian party of Marxist socialism. They demanded a small, elitist, disciplined party, compared to Mensheviks who wanted a more democratic party with mass membership.
League of Nations
A permanent international organization established during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars. Idealism for world without wars, initiated by Woodrow Wilson
Treaty of Versailles
1919 peace settlement that ended WW1 - declared Germany responsible for the war, limited Germany's army, forced them to pay huge reparations and give up Alsace-Lorraine to France and some territory to Poland
Dawes Plan
Plan to revive Germany's economy - reduced Germany's yearly reparations, made payment dependent on German economic prosperity, and granted Germany large loans from the United States to promote recovery.
A philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the search for moral values in a world of terror and uncertainty
Mein Kampf
Adolf Hitler's autobiography, published in 1925, which also contains Hitler's political ideology, including Social Darwinism theories etc.
id, ego and superego
Freudian terms for the primitive, irrational unconscious (id), the rationalizing conscious that mediates what a person can do (ego), and the ingrained moral values that specify what a person should do (superego).
A variety of cultural movements at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth that rebelled against traditional forms and conventions of the past.
The principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve the purpose for which they were made as well as possible
Middle powers
Countries with significant economic influence that became increasingly assertive regional leaders after the Cold War. For example Mexico, Brazil, France, Germany, Nigeria, South Africa, Turkey, Egypt, Israel - all regional leaders.

Permanent mandates commission

A commission created by the League of Nations to oversee the developed nations’ fulfillment of their international responsibility toward their mandates. Compromise between Wilson’s idealism and European desire for colonies. The people incapable of governing themselves should be governed by developed nations – and this commission should oversee it. =>development towards independence, but the implementation was up to powers

Sykes-Picot agreement

The 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France that divided up the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. Arabs were promised an independent Arab state by UK, but UK signed this agreement that contradicted this promise – Arabs felt bitter and betrayed.

Balfour declaration

A 1917 statement by British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour that supported the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It did contradictory promises to Middle Eastern Arabs and European Jews.

Treaty of Lausanne

The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey. Turkey after many losses won several victories thanks to Mustafa Kemal against Greece and Britain (did not recognize dismembering of country), resulting in peace and this treaty.


The national assembly established by the despotic shah of Iran in 1906. The establishment was forced, in area of Persia, because of foreign pressure – effort to build unified modern nation. It was impossible, however, as Russia and UK divided spheres of influence, and after Russian revolution, UK filled the power vacuum – installing advisors.


A Jewish collective farm, first established by Zionists in Palestine, on which each member shared equally in the work, rewards, and defense. Jews were because of UK promise moving to Middle East gradually forming a nation. Modernization besides others was because of kibbutz.

Lucknow pact

A 1916 alliance between the Hindus leading the Indian National Congress Party and the Muslim League. Because of war in Europe – India experienced inflation, high taxes, food shortages and epidemic – reviewing the nationalistic movement. The radicals in National Congress Party (Hindu) signed this Pact, trying to gain same autonomy as Canada.


Loosely translated as “soul force,” which Gandhi believed was the means of striving for truth and social justice through love, suffering, and conversion of the oppressor. Nonviolent resistance

May Fourth Movement

A Chinese nationalist movement against foreign imperialists and warlord rule; it began as a 1919 student protest against the decision of the Paris Peace Conference to leave the Shandong Peninsula in the hands of Japan. Warlords – local military leaders in China holding power (after death of dictator Yuan Shigai – first revolution), leading to wars, corruption, and high taxes. This movement looked to the Russia as a model for their own revolution – again led by Sun Yatsen. He was not a communist, however, his main principle was nationalism.

New Culture Movement

An intellectual revolution beginning in 1916 that attacked traditional Chinese, particularly Confucian, culture and promoted Western ideas of science, democracy, and individualism. Many advocated Marxist socialism, as it provided a way to criticize Western dominance.


Giant conglomerate firms established in Japan beginning in the Meiji period and lasting until the end of World War II. They dominated particular sector of economy (unorganized peasants and farmers), creating financial oligarchy, corruption of government officials, and a weak middle class

Long March

The 6,000-mile retreat of the Chinese Communist army in 1934 to a remote region on the northwestern border of China, during which tens of thousands lost their lives. During China civil war, Communist army retreated to distant province before attacks of National army (of National Communist Party)

Bazaar economy
An economy with few salaried jobs and an abundance of tiny, unregulated businesses such as peddlers and pushcart operators.
Multinational corporations
Business firms that operate in a number of different countries and tend to adopt a global rather than a national perspective. They treated world as one big market, escaping political controls and national policies.
Global warming
The consensus view of an overwhelming majority of the world's scientists that hydrocarbons produced through the burning of fossil fuels have caused a greenhouse effect that has increased global temperatures over time.
Feminisation of poverty
The issue that those living in extreme poverty are disproportionately women. It is because they take care of household and children the most - which limits their education and employment options.
Green revolution
Beginning in the 1950s, the increase in food production stemming from the introduction of high-yielding wheat, hybrid seeds, and other advancements. For example wheat in Mexico and rice in China - 2 to 4 times more per year.
Digital divide
The gap between levels of access to computing, Internet, and telecommunications between rich and poor regions and populations. As the internet became more integrated to business and education, people with no or limited access face growing disadvantage.
New Deal
Delano Roosevelt’s plan to reform capitalism in the United States through forceful government intervention in the economy. He created many agencies and launched many public work projects so the federal government could employ as many people as possible.
Popular Front
A party formed in 1936 in France that encouraged unions and launched a far
A radical dictatorship that exercises complete political power and control over all aspects of society and seeks to mobilize the masses for action.
A movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, anti

Five year plan

Launched by Stalin in 1928 and termed the “revolution from above,” its goal was to modernize the Soviet Union and generate a Communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity.

New Economic Policy (NEP)

Lenin’s 1921 policy re-establishing limited economic freedom in the Soviet Union in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration.

Stalin’s forcible consolidation, beginning in 1929, of individual peasant farms in the Soviet Union into large, state
Black Shirts
A private army under Mussolini in Italy that destroyed Socialist newspapers, union halls, and local Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy. Mussolini seized power in 1922.
Lateran Agreement
A 1929 agreement in which Mussolini in Italy recognized the Vatican as an independent state and agreed to give the church heavy financial support in return for the pope’s public support.
A movement born of extreme nationalism and racism and dominated by Adolf Hitler from 1933 until the end of World War II in 1945.
Enabling Act
An act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis in 1933 that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years. The Nazis won only 44 % of votes in 1933, so Hitler outlawed communist party and arrested its members, and afterwards seizure power.
“Lightning war” using planes, tanks, and trucks, first used by Hitler to crush Poland in four weeks.
New Order
Hitler’s program, based on the guiding principle of racial imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples above “inferior” Latin peoples and, at the bottom, “subhuman” Slavs and Jews
The attempted systematic extermination of all European Jews and other “undesirables” by the Nazi state during World War II.
Europe first policy
The military strategy, set forth by Churchill and adopted by Roosevelt, that called for the defeat of Hitler in Europe before the United States launched an all
Cold War
The post–World War II conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. Satellites of USSR – protection against western aggression.
Truman Doctrine
The 1945 American policy of preventing the spread of Communist rule. They provided politics and economics support to government threatened by Communist control. Firstly aid for Turkey and Greece, than Marshall plan…
Marshall Plan
A 1948 American plan for providing economic aid to Europe to help it rebuild after World War II. Stalin refused it for eastern Europe – approved after overthrown of democratically elected government in Czechoslovakia.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an anti
dependency theory

The belief, formulated in Latin America in the mid-twentieth century, that development in some areas of the world locks other nations into underdevelopment. That means, the first developed countries (UK and USA) hinder economic development of the later industrializing countries.

modernization theory

The belief, held in countries such as the United States in the mid-twentieth century, that all countries evolved in a linear progression from traditional to mature. Help for countries to develop – but USA “helpers” did not always understand local conditions leading to negative consequences and mistrust of USA aid.

import substitution industrialization (ISI)
The use of trade barriers to keep certain foreign products out of one’s country so that domestic industry can emerge and produce the same goods. This wasn’t enough, however, and deep social reforms were needed – redistribution of land and state control of major industries and banks in order to this reform was successful. Unfortunately, reformists governments were deposed in military coups… (As in Guatemala, where they tried to redistribute land owned by USA landowners)
liberation theology
A movement within the Catholic Church to support the poor in situations of exploitation that emerged with particular force in Latin America in the 1960s. Priests challenged governments, fought against landowners and business owners – Marxists theory. Popes suppressed this theology afterwards.
Muslim League
Political party founded in 1906 in colonial India that advocated for a separate Muslim homeland after independence. Muhammad Ali Jinnah feared Hindu’s domination of power and therefore proposed creation of two nations, whereas Ghandi disagreed, because it would lead to sectarianism instead of collaboration.
Arab socialism
A modernizing, secular, and nationalist project of nation building in the Middle East aimed at economic development and the development of a strong military. New nations in postwar period emerging from colonial rule.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
Created in 1964, a loose union of Palestinian refugee groups opposed to Israel and united in the goal of establishing a Palestinian state. After end of British protectorate over Palestine, Jews proclaimed Israel. Arab countries attacked, but were defeated, resulting in a number of refugees from Palestine – opposed to Israel and hoping to create united Palestinian state again. Many conflict with Arab countries (Syria, Egypt, …).
Great Leap Forward
Mao Zedong’s acceleration of Chinese development in which industrial growth was to be based on small
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
A movement launched in 1965 by Mao Zedong that attempted to recapture the revolutionary fervor of his guerrilla struggle. Army and young people responded enthusiastically, organizing themselves in radical cadres. They sought to destroy all traces of feudal and bourgeois culture, destroying ancient art pieces.

Pan Africanists

People who, through a movement beginning in 1919, sought black solidarity and envisioned a vast self-governing union of all African peoples. Anticolonial nationalism, efforts for end of discrimination.

cocoa holdups
Mass protests in Africa’s Gold Coast in the 1930s by producers of cocoa who refused to sell their beans to British firms and instead sold them directly to European and American chocolate manufacturers. The prizes dropped during Great depression and they refused to sell coca beans for fixed prizes to British firms.
National Liberation Front
The anticolonial movement in Algeria, which began a war against the French in 1954 and won independence in 1962. After creation of independent Algerian state, many Europeans and Jews flew. It also divided France, so it was unable to respond to nationalists in other African states till Charles de Gaulle returned to power.
Common Market
The European Economic Community created in 1957. European states believed that only unity could prevent future conflict – firstly Coal and Steel community, then Common market – primary goal was to eliminate trade barriers and create market almost as big as in USA.
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

A cartel formed in 1960 by oil-exporting countries designed to coordinate oil production and raise prices, giving those countries greater capacity for economic development and greater leverage in world affairs. They agreed on embargo after European and USA support of Israel in Yom Kippur War. It disrupted economics – and USA was powerless to reverse it.

The global recirculation by international banks of profits from the higher price of oil following the 1973 OPEC oil embargo. Profits from OPEC embargo were deposited in international banks – and they loaned this capital to foreign governments (cycle). Many industrializing countries faced both high energy prizes and heavy debts.
A return beginning in the 1980s to policies intended to promote free markets and the free circulation of capital across national borders.
Washington Consensus
Policies restricting public spending, lowering import barriers, privatizing state enterprises, and deregulating markets in response to the 1980s debt crisis in Latin America. Governments had to borrow more and more to pay the interests.
Beginning in 1987, a prolonged campaign of civil disobedience by Palestinian youth against Israeli soldiers; the Arabic word intifada means “shaking off.” As a result – agreement between Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO, led by Yasir Arafat) and Israel – Israel granted Palestinian self
A government headed by a council of commanders of the branches of the armed forces. They took power in Chile, after armed forces deposed President Allende. Radical economic reforms: privatization of schools, health care, public services. Land was concentrated in hands of large agricultural corporations =\> rise of inequality.
The system of racial segregation and discrimination that was supported by the Afrikaner government in South Africa. Peaceful protests of blacks, then police fired to demonstrators and killed 69 people.
African National Congress (ANC)
The main black nationalist organization in South Africa, led by Nelson Mandela. Outlawed after protests but continued in exile. In 1970s, the government in South Africa promoted “total strategy” and dominated people by force. Pressure from the United nations – cosmetic reforms to apartheid in 1984, which was finally abolished in 1991 after black protests and political pressure from neighboring countries.
“Japan, Inc.”
A nickname from the 1970s and 1980s used to describe what some considered the unfair relationship between Japan’s business world and government. Japan’s government protected its industry from foreign competition, decided which industries were important, and then encouraged mergers and made loans to make powerful businesses.
Tiananmen Square
The site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 at which Communists imposed martial law and arrested, injured, or killed hundreds of students. Students protested against corruption in government and the slowdown of economic reform with the vision of liberalization in other states. However, communist leaders believed that their action preserved Communist power prevented chaos, and demonstrated limits of reform.
The progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s and early 1970s. It stopped when USSR invaded Afghanistan to save the Marxist regime – as Reagan tried to stop spreading Soviet influence, the Soviet Union then gradually started reforms leading to releasing states in eastern Europe.
Economic restructuring and reform implemented by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the establishment of profit
Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev’s popular campaign for government transparency and more open media. Effort to create an “Democratic Socialism” – leading to first free election in Soviet Union, voting an independent minority to Congress of People’s deputies.
Led by Lech Wałęsa, an independent Polish trade union organized in 1980 that worked for the rights of workers and political reform. They organized working class strikes leading to revolt. Solidarity’s leaders were arrested – but Poland was then before economics collapse in 1988, so Communist’s Party was pressured into legalizing Solidarity and allowing free elections for some seats in Parliament – all won by Solidarity.

European union

An economic and political alliance of twelve European nations formed in 1993 that has since grown to include twenty-eight European nations. Free movement of people and goods, common currency, European parliament (infrastructure and educational investments).

Treaty of Paris
The 1763 peace treaty that ended the Seven Years’ War. France lost territories east of Mississippi River, gave Louisiana to Spain as compensation for the loss of Florida, and gave up its holdings in India (to Britain)
Declaration of Independence
The 1776 document in which the American colonies declared independence from Great Britain and recast traditional English rights as universal human right
Opponents of the American Constitution who felt it diminished individual rights and accorded too much power to the federal government at the expense of the states.
Estates General
Traditional representative body of the three estates (= nobility, clergy, and third estate) of France that met in 1789 in response to imminent state bankruptcy.
National Assembly
French representative assembly formed in 1789 by the delegates of the third estate and some members of the clergy, the second estate. Beginning of the French revolution (the third estate called itself National Assembly).
Jacobin club
A political club during the French Revolution to which many of the deputies of the Legislative Assembly (renamed National Assembly) belonged.
Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the French National Convention’s (new assembly – renamed National assembly) radical faction – of the Jacobin’s club, which led the Convention in 1793.
A moderate group that fought for control of the French National Convention in 1793, against Mountain, part of the Jacobins club.

Sans culottes

The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the wealthy; the term came to refer to the militant radicals of the city. They demanded political action to guarantee them daily bread.

Reign of Terror
The period from 1793 to 1794, during which Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands suspected of political crimes, and a new revolutionary culture was imposed.
Thermidorian reaction
A reaction of the middle class (lawyers + professionals) in 1794 to the violence of the Reign of Terror, resulting in the execution of Robespierre and the loosening of economic controls.
Napoleonic Code
French civil code stated in 1804 that reasserted the 1789 principles of the equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property.
Grand Empire
The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain.
Continental System
A blockade imposed by Napoleon in which no ship coming from Britain or its colonies was permitted to dock at any port controlled by the French.
People of European descent born in the Americas – in Haiti, Latin America, etc. Different interests from their mother European country (France)
A term for natives of Spain and Portugal living in colonies (as officers etc.) – Latin American revolutions.
Congress of Vienna
A meeting of the Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain) and France held in 1814–1815 to fashion a general peace settlement after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
A political philosophy that stressed retaining traditional values and institutions, including the hereditary monarchy and a strong landowning aristocracy.
A philosophy whose principal ideas were equality and liberty; liberals demanded representative government and equality before the law as well as such individual freedoms as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
laissez faire
A doctrine of economic liberalism advocating unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
The idea that each people had their own spirit and its cultural unity, which manifested itself, especially in a common language and history and could serve as the basis for an independent political state.
A radical political doctrine that opposed individualism and that advocated cooperation and a sense of community; key ideas were economic planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property.

The well-educated, prosperous, middle-class groups.

The Marxist term for the working class of modern industrialized society.
The changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.
October Manifesto
The result of a great general strike in Russia in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (parliament) with real legislative power.
germ theory
The idea that disease is caused by the spread of living organisms that can be controlled.
The idea, developed by Charles Darwin, that all life had gradually evolved from a common origin through a process of natural selection.
Social Darwinism
The application of the theory of biological evolution to human affairs, it sees the human race as driven to ever
A movement in art, literature, and music characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life.
Dreyfus affair
A divisive case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason. The Catholic Church sided with the anti
The movement toward Jewish political nationhood and state started by Theodor Herzl – a German Jew, as a response to antisemitism.
An effort by various socialists to update Marxist doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.
palm oil
A West African tropical product often used to make soap; the British encouraged its cultivation as an alternative to the slave trade.
Religious war waged by Muslim scholars and religious leaders against both animist rulers (African traditional religion) and Islamic states that they deemed corrupt.

Sokoto caliphate

State founded in 1809 by Uthman dan Fodio, this African state was based on Islamic history and law (jihad…)

Berlin Conference
A meeting of European leaders held in 1884–1885 to lay down basic rules for imperialist competition in sub
An autonomous state or territory partly controlled and protected by a stronger outside power.
Descendants of the Dutch settlers in the Cape Colony in southern Africa. (Three
New Imperialism

he late-nineteenth-century drive by European countries to create vast political empires abroad.

An agent that proved effective in controlling attacks of malaria, which had previously decimated Europeans in the tropics
white man’s burden
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living.
A set of radical reforms designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model. Equality before the law regardless of religion, modernized administration, and military.
Young Turks
Fervent (=passionate) patriots who seized power in the revolution of 1908, forcing the conservative sultan to implement reforms; they helped pave the way for the birth of modern secular Turkey.
great migration
The mass movement of people from Europe in the nineteenth century; one reason that the West’s impact on the world was so powerful and complex.
migration chain
The movement of peoples in which one strong individual blazes the way and others follow (from Europe because of overpopulation)
great white walls
Discriminatory laws passed by Americans and Australians to keep Asians from settling in their countries in the 1880s.