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72 Terms
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Each mosque should contain:
One or two Minarets (for call for prayer or Adhan) (also exists in secular architecture), towers A central dome A Mihrab that is built towards Mecca showing the Qibla or the directions the Muslims should face when praying (not visible from outside, small notch type/enclave (depends on architecture style) Running water or a pond with a fountain to perform ablution (ritual cleansing), when you follow what the religion tells you before doing prayers
What is ablution?
Splash water on face 3x, clean arms, clean feet, some clean mouth, ears, then touch forehead with water
What is Islamic architecture?
as both a concept and sensory reality, is an architecture whose function and, to a lesser extent, form, are inspired primarily by Islam. Islamic architecture is a framework for the implementation Islam. Some buildings would include: 1. Schools (madrasa- to teach religion), 2. shrines, 3. graveyards Tawheed/ oneness of God promotes unity in diversity of styles methods, and solution
Did not instruct muslims how to build their homes but should prioritize:
Privacy Provide spatial environment to maintain decency among family members Provide areas where both the guests and family members have access to spaces allocated to them Space [particularly for large families] should be accommodating both genders Provide spaces or condition for the performance of religious obligations Certain vocab/features courtyard/ sometimes with small ponds or fountain Partly or fully screened windows Elevating windows above eye levels Bent entrances (humbleness)
What does Mamluk mean?
(1260-1517), means owned, not native to Egypt, were enslaved Mamluks could not pass on their property nor title, therefore the group was constantly updated. of the king is an Arabic designation for slaves. Commonly used for muslim slave soldiers and muslim rulers of slave origins
What happened with the Mamluks?
Overthrew their enslavers and started their own dynasty Significant female patrons Women were not restricted regarding the type of foundations that they could sponsor Religious and educational buildings, mosques and mausoleums and more were founded by women
Indicators of Mamluk elite
Ties to the royal court (constantly honored) Elaborate preparations for their journey to Mecca Their mausoleum was located in the city
How were Mamluk women able to finace their own places?
Financed through gifts/doweries or inheritance, death of husband or father Al Madrasa Al-Hijaziyya Built by, the wife of amir Malkatmur al Hijazi in the 14th century Built as mausoleum Ribat of Khawand Zaynab 15th century Used as hospice for women, old, etc Only portal remained
Women of the civilian class for Mamluks
Arabic speaking, vital role in education and religion Prominent in poetry, grammar, jurisprudence and hadith
Mamluk Dynasty
Khwarazmian Dynasty in PErsia (1077-1231) Mamluk in Delhi, India (1206-1290) Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo (1250-1517) Mamluk of Iraq under Ottoman Iraq (1704-1831)
Why did the Mamuks (Ottoman, of Turish and slave decent) and Arabs clash?
Arab culture never liked Ottoman empire, because they ruled over muslim countries, rather than the Arabs (muslim)
Who were the Otooman empire?
Most enduring realm was the military caste divison in Egypt that rose from the ranks of slave soliders, who were mainly turkic/ Cirassiannorth caucasian, Georgian, and Coptic Egyptian Many Mamluks could also be of Balkan origin (Albanian, Greek, and South Slavic)
Who were the Mamluks?
Status was above ordinary sales, allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks in places such as Egypt Considered to be “true lords” and “true warriors” with social status above the general population in Egypt and the Levant (countries in East Mediterranean, speak similar forms of Arabic)
What was the book of women?
Al Sakhawo (1428) devoted an entire volume of biography to women called Kitab al Nisa (book of women) Contained info about women from the time of the prophet, and early part of Islam. Only in a few places about Medieval women
Who were the Mamluk women?
Active patrons, referred with honorific titles like Khatun (Hatun) and Khawand (Persoan and Turkish terms like lady), respected members of society As noted with the Seljuks of Rum, the Mamluk ladies of the elite class also were privileged members of the courts being the mother or wife of sultan Expensive items among their doweries, ot large amounts of cash Spend lavishly for their wolves on occasion of birth of son, spending money on illness, or to pay for safe passage to Mecca Meet with wife personally outside the town on the way back, would escort her through town Showered with gifts and later her safe passage would be celebrated Women played a major role in political culture (restricted) and could convince Sultan to excuse taxes and could also administrate state affairs such as appointing or dismissing members of the court Also act as mediators when there was disputes between a Sultan and his army Participated in peace making efforts when there were hostilities among members of the court, Elite mamluk members outside the court Highly educated in literature, religion and social etiquettes Enjoyed respectable status and scholarship and had titles such as Siyeda (lady), A’lima (Scholar, religious scholar), Salhia
to bow down, mosque
Maire Elisabeth Aimee Lucus- Robiquet (1858-1958)
Recognized for paintings of (African??) and Algerian subjects. 1897 edition of Parisian Illustrated Review cites her outdoor studies for a “wise tendency toward reasonable impressionism“ by ”an artist of the highest order” Enjoyed 40 years of artistic recognition within the Paris Salon de al Societe des Artistes Fracais After death, legacy and paintings faded Resurgence occurred in the early 21st century Rare example of a female artist living and working in North Africa Time when women did not travel and rarely admitted to art academies Paintings reveals some locations where she traveled, including Algeria She spoke the same language (dominated by french colonialism) Not received adequate art historical attention, and her explorations in Northern Africa as a pied noir during the French Colonial era set her apart Depictions of Maghrebi Weavers outdoors and indoors Moroccans (West) Depicted family life, weaving, and with children, even cooking
Etienne Dinet (1861-1929)
Made his first top to Bou Saada in southern Algeria in 1884 with a team of entomologists. Went the next year on a governmental scholarship this time to Laghoust Painted first two Algerian pictures 1903 bought a house in Algeria, so enchanted by North africa that he eventually converted to Islam 1908- announced conversion, 1913 formally changed 1929 undertook the Haj to mecca. Earned respect 5000 who attended his funeral Attended Oriental Language School to learn Arabic Understanding Algerian culture and knowing Arabic language set him apart from other orientalist artists Arabic helped find nude models in rural Algeria where the ‘rule of the veil’ was less frequently observed Prostitutes Could not approach veiled women in the city As he became more interested in Islam, began to paint religious subjects more often Active in translating Empathy and understanding lent his work an authenticity rarely surpassed
Major features of Orientalist paintings
Depictions of ordinary people, sensationally exotic Exoticism is perhaps the defining characteristics, subjects are stereotyped, details are exaggerated, taste and smells are passionately induced, mocks the religions, almost photographic qualities with vivid colors and details. Most europeans never had been to the region Kind of a mysterious place a blank canvas to project wild dreams Europeans wanted to believe that the middle east was a region of exotic luxuriance, sensual richness and forbidden pleasures, a place to quite separate to their own Was in short, a fantasy Middle east depicted in the Orientalist paintings of the 19th century, was simultaneously real and not real; knew the place existed, yet every element was fantastical, belonging to a different world entirely Orientalism is commonly used to specifically refer to a style of painting developed in the 19th century, and depicted the regions of west Asia, North Africa, and south easter tip of Europe Linked to the tradition of Academic art People who did travel there indulged this fantasy to the extreme
Orientalism in politics
In politics, Napoleon invasion of Egypt on 1798 kickstarted the new academic study of the county Not merely military, but also scientific and intellectual one, taking him with a band of scientists, archaeologists and writers known as savants, His aim was not to rule the country, but rather to study the history and culture. Wanted to dominate culturally (French) Conquer the women, then the men would be conquered (insult the women, get the men) Also employed artists to create stirring images of him in action in Egypt, like the famous court artist Antonio
Historical accuracy is important which now effects price of orientalist paintings
Some painted shoes in the mosque (doesn’t happen) so thus clearly from a fantasy Accuracy of jewelry and clothing Scenes of forgein cities and countrysides and oriental natives (usually women) are most popular Many famous artists traveled to the regions, but others did not and relied on travel accounts and popular images
work of vocal music, partially coincident with hymns, acapella or with instruments according to traditional style/ tradition of Islam Malay group began this, no violin or other Music is debated, prophet allowed music on occasions
(West of Saudi Arabia)
Tuisian Woman Musicians
Population is an integrated mixture of Arabs, erbers, and black africans with Arabic and french aas the predominant languages and Islam the offical religions Culture is mix of dominant mediterranean and western Asian civilizations Location: North Africa and is one of the four nations know as Maghreb (West of Saudi Arabia) Form colony of France fro 1881-1955 1956 gained independence Habib Bourguiba helped Tunisia to its independence, an very frist president to 1987, changed family status law from Sharia to secular Equality of men and women, state emphasized this However social forces discouraged men and women to be equal- leads to the government also practice inequality Religion was interpreted as: emphasizing that marrying and having children is compulsory- reverts to conservative view of women tat still affects women today
Antiquities and Art Treasures act of 1972
expressly prohibited the export of artifacts and antiquities (defined as 100 years old) asserted that the state had overreaching custodianship over artifacts, over individual owners. had to be registered with the government so all sales or change of hands could be tracked.
Colonial Tunisian rule
Gave governmental posts to Tunisian women to maintain allies within Tunisia- sign of modernization and cultural assimilation
Young Nationalist Groups
made women center of reform, became symbol of Arab-muslim cultural authenticy
What stops women from public participation
Class differences- during indepence wat most upper class women were sheltered but still active in resistance other classes were welcomed in te public sphere now, women face hostility if they want t be active outside in the public. have t negotiate between indoor/outdoor places
Female performers in Moroccan Culture. associated with singing and dancing and joyful activities originally male crossdressers and play and sing instruments socially marginized
formal, respectful, shy
relazed, easy going, free flowing
singers, new term that government uses to popularize the moroccan culture to give more positive aspect to the singing careers
Shaikhat bodies
shame and looseness. they refuse social rules. openly drink and smoke
Moroccan dance
dance is a private matter. good women will only perform in front of all female audiences
What is islamic art?
Named invented by western academics Categorizing is difficult- use time periods or regions 'Art of muslims'
From wahid=one (Arabic) Wahid also means unique, peerless Reference to oneness of Allah
Which heritages inspired Islamic art?
Ancient Greece (mostly hellenistic) Semitic near east (jewish and Arabic) Byzantium
What are the characteristics of Greek art?
God fits in the nature of a human figure No strange faces or resembling something, represented by human figures
What are the characteristics of near eastern art?
Man has a different relationship to the divinity Divinity was greater than the man-God is bigger/taller than humans visually
Geometric patterns of islamic art are often said to arise form the islamic view of the world These forms taken together, constitute an infinite pattern that extends beyond the visible material world 1 Anywhere can beginning, anywhere can be end 2 Complete by itself, but if chopped down, it is still complete 3 God is endless, no beginning or ending 4 Different styles (usually by region) 5 Kufic- used inside, angular (fits well in corner and notches)
"unit of culture" (idea, belief, patterns of behavior), which is hosted in the minds of one or more individuals, which can reproduce itself, therefore jumping mind to mind. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief is seen as an idea-replicator reproducing itself in a new host Example: voodoo doll Brain association
to imitate
latin, means likeness, similarity, is a representation or imitation of a person or thing
copy, painting, likeness or comparision
opposite of using idols
(fear of icons) refers to an aversion ot hatred of the images to images, especially religious icons
refers to the actual destruction of images that may arise from iconophobia
absence of material representation of the natural and supernatural wold in different cultures around the world. Particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions (judisam, christianity, and Islam)
image, 2D. More powerful then prototype (original one) since it is more accessible than the prototype. Most human God is inaccessible so representation of God holds a functional superiority over the prototype. Memetic the image does not copy, since it intermingle with it
Head of Jesus (Sallman)
Reproduced more than 500 mil times Company f Andersn arranged to market the image in late 1940 Copy right date of 1941 Chicago Offset Printing Company printed the image in 6 color separation lithographic process that preserved the unique radiant incandescent glow Several characteristics made the head of christ especially successful: photographic, no background, only head and shoulders Marketed through the United Service ORganizations, included Salvation Army, which found its way into pockets of millions of soldiers during WWII Also spread through christian missionaries
reference to religious authorities
stories, stops at Mohammad's death (about what he said/did) a collection of traditions containing sayings of the prophet Muhammad which, with accounts of his daily practice
tradition of the prophet, cultural background
Who are Assyrians?
Kingdom extant as a nation state from the mid 23rd century BC to 608 BC centered on the Upper Tigris river in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq), heir descendants still live in the region tody and they form the Christian minority in modern Iraq. Also exist in northeast Syria, southeast Turkey, and northwest Iran.
Al Buraq
"it is an animal, white and long, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule, who would place ots hoof at a distance equal to the range of vision" Angel Gabriel brought the Buraq handsome faced and bridled. Bucked when the prophet came to mount him Most depictions have a peacock like feathers (bird of paradise)
collected 200 years after the death of the prophet For academic purposes, if you quote the accepted 4 hadith, no problem. Page number, who said it
During Prophet Mohammad's journey to heaven, what did he see?
Also mentioned in hadith that he saw other prophets born before him who gave him guidance and advice
Each culture saw this particular beast according to their own cultural aesthetics and imagination.
Indonesian: Peacock feather as part of a giant fish South asia: resembling south asian females (pakistan) Mosque to mosque is usually depicted Mohammad is not always depicted: could be due to not wanting to picture him (usually more modern)
scholar, someone who has religious knowledge
plural of Alim
Three names of Allah
bari= creator Mosawar khaliq= creator
What were the justifications used for claiming there was a lack of art in India by colonial power ruling India
Colonial attitudes claimed India had little art in museums, but rather had an abundance of antiquities. This is because there was little western style paintings and artwork. Art is subjective and colonial attitudes meant that India art was seen as lesser and needed western consciousness- rising in order to produce art. Their society was seen as inferior and incapable of producing art.
Shaykhat in Moroccan culture means specific groups of people. Write a short answer with clear examples addressing shaykhat's gender, career, lifestyle, moral, and social reputations.
Shaykhats were originally crossdressing males who performed and sang. However this changed, and now refers to women dancers and performers. Reputation wise, they are not of admired status and are often thought of as rejecting social norms by smoking and drinking. Moroccan culture has named dancers as Muhanniyya, a polite word for entertainers, as a way to bring more respect.
Name one form of music (including singing) that is permissible by the majority of the conservative ulama
What is the genre of the Nasheed?
Choral, a-capella, coincident with hymns, religious, praising the Prophet and God
What genders perform the Nasheed?
Men and women
What is the position of the Qur'an (not the hadith) on singing and playing musical instruments?
The Qur'an has nothing against singing and playing instruments, but rather one should not be consumed by music, which is the general position of muslims
Islam and image
In the Qur'an there are 99 names for Allah, name the 3 names and explain how conservative muslims argue against creating art and Image
bari= creator Mosawar khaliq= creator The creator means that conservative muslims are against creating art and images, as they believe no one should create besides God and there are several instances in the Qu'ran that speak out against image making
What are the differences between Iconophobia and aniconiconism?
(fear of icons) refers to an aversion ot hatred of the images to images, especially religious icons, versus aniconiconism is the opposite of using idols
This form of art is permissible because it doe not depict living beings nor is it an icon. Rather the concept stems through the idea of Tawhid (oneness, peerless), in this sense it has no beginning or ending, a section of the arabesque is complete by itself, as is the entire image.
Why do some people not like to sit in front of a camera to have their images captured?
Supertistion, believes their soul will be taken. Also frowned upon to have something made in their likeness, as depicting humans is frrowned upon in muslim society.