The relationship between faith and reason according to Kierkegaard
Faith and reason in tension; faith is irrational; faith is higher than reason; leap of faith.
The relationship between faith and reason according to Hegel
Reason above faith
The relationship between faith and reason according to Locke
Reason purifies faith
The relationship between faith and reason according to Ayers
Something is true is you can verify it or falsify it. Reason is truth, faith is nonsense
The relationship between faith and reason according to Gould
Reason (science) and faith as separate spheres;
The relationship between faith and reason according to Augustine & Anselm
Faith enlightens reason
The relationship between faith and reason according to Aquinas
Faith perfects/completes reason
Kierkegaard’s notion of the teleological suspension of the ethical.
Fulfilling rational and moral obligations to Isaac will never bring Abraham into proper relationship with the Creator. Faith is a higher goal than ethics.
Averroes on double truth.
There are certain things that are true from reason’s perspective and faith’s perspective. These truths may contradict themselves
the belief that we can discern truths about God through thoughtful observation of nature.
theology through scripture and holy teaching.
Logical positivism and its verification principle of meaning (VPM); the problem with VPM.
Twentieth century theology where propositions have meaning only if their truth value can be verified by logic and/or empirical evidence.
The verification principle of meaning states that a proposition has meaning only if it is true by definition or is potentially verifiable or falsifiable by empirical methods.
You can’t verify the VPM to say that it is true.
the belief in God or gods.
the belief in many gods.
the belief in just one God
this is when a tribe or people believe in one God, but accept that other nations have other gods
this is the belief that there is a spirit of life and a spiritual world, but there is no belief in a personal God
this is a combination of both monotheism and pantheism that says that the spiritual energy of the universe comes together to become a single, personal God. God is distinct from the rest of the world but never separate from the world. They live in a codependent relationship
this is when a person is unsure about whether a god or sacred reality exists
this is a firm belief that there are no gods, God, or a sacred reality
Thomas Aquinas' 5 ways
1. Argument from motion (change) - Motion of the universe had to be caused by God.
2. Argument from causation - uncaused cause is God. - Everything that exists needs to have a creator. Must be unlimited and the cause of all things.
3. Argument from contingent existence. - Everything created is contingent; meaning that it is not necessary.
^^Species of cosmological argument^^
4. Arguments from degrees of perfection - there must be a most perfect being (esp. as a source of moral goodness. - There is perfection and everything is some degree of perfection.
5. theological argument - The world has a cause and specific nature and order that it lives by.
God as an absolute being
Never begins to exist but simply exists. This makes him a good candidate for the question of who is the ultimate cause of all things.
The Kalam cosmological argument
This view states that the universe could not have existed for an infinite amount of past time.
1. The cosmos as a whole (multiverse or universe) began to exist
2. Anything that begins to exist has a cause outside of itself
3. The whole of the cosmos has a cause outside of itself
evil depends on the free actions of libertarian agents
evil is not brought about by free choices
Aneslm's ontological argument
God is the most perfect being. The most perfect being must have the quality of necessary existence, so it has to exist. If he is perfect then he must be in all possible worlds.
Logical problem of evil
evil states that for every evil event, God could have stopped it.
Evidential problem of evil
evil states that the existence of God is very very unlikely given the amount and extent of evil in the history of the actual world.
Anything that exists must exist either dependently (be caused) or independently (be uncaused).
The cosmos and all in it doesn’t exist independently.
The causal chain can’t be infinite. (2nd law of thermodynamics)
God doesn’t depend on anything else in order to exist.
Therefore God is the 1st Cause of everything else.
Objections to the cosmological argument
If God made the cosmos, who made God?
A: God is uncaused (an absolute being)
There’s no time before the big bang for a cause to happen!
A: How can nothing become everything w/ no cause? The cause of time is timeless.
The cosmos displays complex, purposive order
Complex, purposive order = design
Where there is a design, there is a designer
The designer of the cosmos is God
Objections to the teleological argument
Natural selection, multiverse.
All normal humans have a moral sense (a sense of right and wrong)
Cultures and civilizations actress time and space have agreed on certain basics of morality (e.g., murder is wrong; hospitality is right)
If morality is simply by evolution or social contract, then it’s relative.
If it’s platonic, then impersonal absolute. (Law without a Law-giver)
If it’s theistic, then personal absolute
Problem of evil
If God is all powerful he can get rid of all evil.
If God is all-good, he wants to get rid of all evil.
But evil continues to exist
Therefore, God is either not all powerful or not all-good or doesn’t exist at all.
Perfect being is infinite-personal (rational, volitional, benevolent, active).
Infinite-personal being freely creates the world of finite beings.
Infinite-personal being is immutable & impassible
Eternity = timelessness (“Eternal now”)
Perfect being is infinite- nonpersonal (beyond reason/will, good/evil, subject/object of action; it just is)
Infinite beings necessarily includes the world as finite beings.
Infinite being is immutable & impassible
Eternity = timelessness (“eternal now”)
process theism (panentheism)
Perfect being is finite-personal (rational, volitional, benevolent, active.)
Finite – personal being necessarily creates the world of finite beings.
Finite- personal being is perfectly mutable & passible.
Eternity = everlastingness
Can God do anything?
Logical possibilities: can God make square circles or 2+2=5
Moral impossibilities: Can God break his word? Can God sin?
Metaphysical impossibilities: can god erase the past or make a stone that he can’t lift?
Refined definitions of omnipotence
God can do whatever is possible
God can do whatever is consistent with his nature
God is the ongoing provider and governor of all real power
Does God know everything?
Logical impossibilities: Does God know what sound the color orange makes?
Moral Impossibilities: Does God know what it is like to sin?
Metaphysical impossibilities: Does God know what it is like to be me?
Redefined definitions of omniscience
God knows whatever is possible to know
God knows whatever is consistent with his nature to know
God is the ongoing provider and governor of all real knowledge
God knows everything that will happen because all times are present to him. Thus, he foreknows our choices but doesn’t predetermine them.
God knows everything that would happen in all possible worlds, including our free choices. He actualizes one possible world & so foreknows what we’ll freely do.
Does God foreknow our choices? Does he cause them? No & no
Process theism and open theism:
God knows whatever can be known, but future free-willed choices can’t be known as anything but “maybe” because the future can’t exist yet. God either can’t (process theism) or won’t (open theism) force our choices.
Does God foreknow our choices? Does he cause them? Yes & yes
God knows everything because he is the ultimate cause of everything. Humans are free to do what they want, but God determines what they want. God holds us responsible because we are the direct cause of our actions.
Does God foreknow our choices? Does he cause them? Yes & no