APHG: Unit 2 Vocab

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Population distribution
the pattern of human settlement- the spread of people across the earth
Population density
a measure of the average population per square mile or kilometer of an area
Social stratification
the hierarchical division of people into groups based on factors such as economic status, power and or ethnicity
Arithmetic population density
the most commonly used population density and is calculated by dividing a region's population by its total area
Physiological population density
calculated by dividing population by the amount of arable land
Arable land:
land suitable for growing crops
Agricultural population density:
compares the number of farmers to the area of arable land
facilities and structures that allows people to carry out their typical activities
Carrying Capacity:
the number of people a region can support without damaging the environment
Population pyramids
a tool used to study populations, also known as age-sex composition graph
Birth deficit
the slowdown of births on population pyramid graphs
Baby boom:
a spike in birth rate
Baby bust:
when a spike in birth rates starts to decline we enter this stage
birth bulge on a pyramid
Dependent population:
people under the age of 15 or over the age of 64
Dependency ratio:
the comparison between the potential workforce and the dependent population
Crude birth rate
the number of live births per year for each 1,000 people
Total fertility rate:
the average number of children who would be born per woman between the ages of 15-49
Life Expectancy
the average number of years people live
Infant Mortality Rate:
the number of children who die before their first birthday
Crude death rate:
the total number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people
Rate of natural increase:
the percentage of which a country's population is growing or declining without the impact of migration
Population doubling time:
the amount of time it takes for a population to double
Demographic transition model:
shows five typical stages of population change that countries experience as they modernize
Stage 1:
high stationary stage, only a few isolated groups are in this stage and they are typically subsistence farmers or hunters and gathers
Stage 2:
Niger represents this stage with an expansive population pyramid, one with a high birth rate which produces a wide base and a low life expectancy which leads to narrowing in the upper years
Stage 3:
Turkey represents this urbanizing stage with a declining birth rate and a more slowly declining death rate. The society is young but the percentage of elderly is increasing as life expectancy goes up. The population is rapidly growing.
Stage 4
This stage is known as the stationary population pyramid. It indicates a population that is not significantly growing or shrinking. The birth rate is low but steady. The death rate is also low, indicating a high life expectancy.
Stage 5
This stage has a decreasing birth rate. The population is aging and declining slightly overall.
Demographic momentum:
the tendency for a growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution
Epidemiological transition model:
This model is an extension of the DTM and explains the changing death rates and more common causes of death within societies
(Stage 1) Diseases and famine:
Effects the population by resulting in a high death rate and low life expectancy.
(Stage 2) Receding pandemics:
Effects the population by resulting in a decreasing death rate and increasing life expectancy.
(Stage 3) Degenerative and human created diseases:
Examples are heart diseases and types of cancer, Effects the population by resulting in the death rate stabilizing at a low level and life expectancy increases
(Stage 4) Delayed degenerative diseases:
An extension of stage 3, examples are Alzheimer's and dementia, Effects the population by resulting in death rates reaching lowest levels and life expectancy peaking
(Stage 5) Reemergence of infectious parasitic diseases:
diseases increase as bacteria and parasites become resistant to antibiotics and vaccines, life expectancy decreases.
Malthusian theory:
an analysis between natural resource use, particularly agricultural output and the growing population that concluded that society was on a path toward massive starvation
when the world's population grows faster than the food production and ultimately becomes unsupportable
Neo- malthusians:
a group that argued that population growth is a serious problem currently and has an even greater threat for the future
Boserup theory:
suggests that the more people there are, the more hands there are to work, rather than just more mouths to feed. Also argued that population growth is a serious problem.
Antinatalist policies:
Government policies that attempt to decrease the number of births in a country and are often used by developing countries
Pronatalist policies:
Government programs designed to increase the fertility rate
the permanent or semi permanent relocation of people from one place to another
Push Factors:
the reasons that people migrate to a specific location, these are typically negative circumstances, events or conditions present where they live that compels a person to leave
Pull Factors:
once migrants decide to leave, they usually choose a destination based on its positive conditions and circumstances
A person who moves into a country
when people migrate away from somewhere
Migration Transition Model:
created by Wilbur Zelinsky that argues that countries in stages 2 and 3 of the DTM experience rapid population growth and overcrowding
Intervening Obstacles:
barriers that make reaching their desired destination more difficult
Intervening Opportunity
opportunities migrates might encounter en route that disrupt their original migration plan
Step Migration:
when migrants reach their eventual destination through a series of smaller moves
Rural-to-urban migration
The movement of people from the countryside to the city
Counter migration:
when migration flows produce a movement in the opposite direction
Forced Migration:
migration that is involuntary, meaning migrants have no choice but to move
Internally Displaced Persons
a term used to classify forced migrants who move to another part of the same country
a term used to classify forced migrants who move to across international borders
some political refugees apply for this when they arrive in their country of destination
Voluntary Migration
when people choose to relocate
Internal Migration:
movement of people within a country
Transnational Migration
when people move from one country to another or internationally, rather than internally
Chain Migration:
when people migrate to and settle in a new country, they often decide to locate in a city or community where others from their home country have previously settled which ultimately contributes to this type of migration
Guest workers
Migrants who travel internationally in order to find work as temporary laborers.
the process of herders moving with their animals to different pastures during difference seasons
a strong dislike of people of another culture
money sent to migrants family and friends in the country they left
Brain Drain:
when migration out of a country is made up of many highly skilled people
Ethnic Enclaves:
neighborhoods filled primary with people of the same ethnic group