the totality of the changes in economic and social organizations that began in the 1760s in England and later in other countries. Characterized mostly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines.
Who were the new workers during the Industrialization time period?
Children and women
What were the main factors that allowed Industrialization to begin? (5)
1. Better farming practices
2. Abundant food supply
3. Supply of Capital $
4. Abundance Resources
5. Supply of markets to sell to
What were the working conditions in the factories?
Women and children were employed since they were considered a cheap sense of labor. It was not very clean, there was dim lighting, and it was dangerous because the boilers and machines could potentially explode at any point. Any injuries couldn't be sustained and there was no government aide.
What were the working hours in factories?
14 hour schedules and 6 days a week
What were the types of jobs were there for the workers?
In the factory, they operated and cleaned the Spinning Jenny. There were other jobs such as mill workers, miners, farmers, and few salesmen.
What is Urbanization?
City building and people moving from countryside to the city
Why did Urbanization occur?
There were many new factories that required many large workforces. Major new industrial centers sprang up in the coal-rich area. Many people moved their families closer into town because of this.
What were the living conditions for most of the people in the cities? (mostly factory workers)
The had no development plans, sanitary codes, or building codes where they lived. Many lived in dark, dirty shelters with trash everywhere. There was usually many people under one roof so sicknesses spread quickly. Average life span was 17 for a worker.
What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on families?
The factories were open for such long hours that people hardly ever got to see their family members. The average life span and fertility rates when down as well. Home life and work life became much more separated.
What were the short term effects of Industrialization?
Short term things were child labor, poor working conditions, and death and hygiene issues
What were some long term effects of the Industrial Revolution?
A wider distribution of wealth and increased trading is one thing. There was also a higher demand for goods and services. The standard of living became much cleaner and healthy for people to live in.
Who was Karl Marx?
Karl Marx was one of the first people to come up with the idea of Communism. He wrote the Communist Manifesto and formed the basis of Marxism. He believed there should be a complete and equal distribution of wealth among the citizens.
What is an alternative name for socialism?
A mixed economy
What is an alternative name for communism?
A command economy
What is an alternative name for capitalism?
A free market economy
What is the definition of communism?
Everyone gets equal pay and the government manages everything business related. There is no private property and no one owns their own businesses for the most part.
What is the definition of capitalism?
Economic and political system where a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit. Everyone makes their money based off of economic success and the government stays out of it.
What is the definition of Socialism?
A political and economic system in which property and the means of production are owned in common, typically controlled by the state or government. Regulation of money with the ability to still compete.
What is a positive of a command economy? Negative?
- no one fights over money differences
- no poverty
- no social class divide
- no economic freedom
- not many choices
- people get greedy
- government gets majority of the money
What is a positive of a socialism economy? Negative?
- citizen money is more similar
- poverty gap narrows
- still competition but not as harsh
- very few businesses fail
- Harder to be on top
- High taxes
- Fights over amount of money government takes
- Not as many choices of stores and goods
- Less purchasing power
What is a positive of a capitalist economy? Negative?
- lots of money that people can earn and spend
- Encourages innovation
- Government stays out and doesn't tell you what to do
- Incentivized to work
- No government help
- still a separation of classes
- more poverty
What is the role of citizens, governments, and businesses in command economies?
Only have a certain amount of money to spend so use it wisely and you can't just go buy whatever
Holds most of the money and is in charge of equally distributing it. They dictate everything that happens economically.
Told what to sell and they do it. There are very few businesses and they are limited to what they can produce and how much of it they do produce.
What is the role of citizens, governments, and businesses in socialism economies?
Receive some government assistance but not much. They get to chose where to buy stuff even though options are somewhat limited
Gives a little money for basic needs (a need can vary) and they do hold some people back. They redistribute the wealth so the poverty gap thins out.
Sell what is needed. Still have the ability to compete and some are even funded by the government.
What is the role of citizens, governments, and businesses in capitalism economies?
Buy what they want and make as much money as possible. They help the economy flow better
Stays out of economic problems and takes care of it's own. They are Laissez-faire which is very hands off
Sell what they think people will buy. Compete with other business with the risk of failure.
What does the term "Laissez Faire" mean?
Hands off, letting something take its course and not interfering
What is old imperialism?
Old imperialism is informal/indirect and has to do with trading and religion. This was from 1607- 1763.
What is new imperialism?
New imperialism is direct governing with military and in the 19th century.
Why did mostly European countries start imperialism?
European countries were all able to compete because they were economically stable. They had the weapons and machinery they needed in order to win battles. They also had more goods and services that needed to be delivered different places because of Industrialization.
What were the motivations for imperialism in South Africa?
The motivations for imperialism were natural resources such as water, gold, and diamonds.
What were the motivations for imperialism in Southeast Asia?
They wanted to get easier access to China. They also needed to built ports for trading and have China as a refueling place for their troops.
What were the motivations for imperialism in India?
The British needed cotton because it was considered their "crown jewel" of their empire. They also wanted to mainly trade opium with some other things including tea, indigo, juice, and coffee.
What was the European involvement in South Africa?
The British and the Dutch both fought for the African land. The Africans tried to fight back against them but due to their lack of weapons they lost and they fell to British power. After this happened there was lots of segregation going on between the British and Africans.
What was the European involvement in Southeast Asia?
There were 5 main countries that included Britain, Netherlands (dutch), France, Germany, and the USA. The British took over the Malyan Penninsula while the USA took command of Hawaii and the Philipines.
What was the European involvement in India?
There was the British wanted more power and their government wanted involvement in India's military and political affairs. The British gave bullets to the Indians as a peace offering but they were covered in stuff which made them useless. The British ended up getting this land and all the sepoy got arrested.
Please lmk if this is wrong, the person who was reading it did not seem to 100% know everything that happened.
What is nationalism?
loyalty, allegiance, or devotion to a nation or nation state and obligations outweigh other individual or group interests.
What is the impact of nationalism on European countries?
It helped people see their similarities (traditions, religion, language, etc.) and then helped them come together. This also could be dangerous though because people get arrogant and think all other countries are below them.
What is Social Darwinism?
The idea of the strong will team with the strong to take out the weak because there's not room for the lesser species. This caused a lot of racial implications to be associated with this in the 19th century.
What is Zionism?
Jewish Nationalism. Throughout the 1880s-90s they get kicked out of many countries and it's the idea of them coming together to fight against everyone and finding a safe place.
Who were the Luddites?
People rioted because jobs were dangerous and people were dying from them. If they got caught then they were hanged.
Why did the Luddites start rioting?
They wanted an economic transformation and they wanted to be paid more for their work. They also related it back to the Enlightenment and wanting to have rights.
What were the 4 main things that happened during the agricultural revolution?
1. They set boundaries for the land - enclosures- so private property starts
2. Crop Rotation is used - rotating of crops on land each year. Normally a 3 or 4 year cycle
3. Selective forced breeding. Find the best animals and breed them together for better, stronger livestock
4. Seed drill and other inventions to make farming easier
What was the overall goal of the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrialization?
Efficiency and acceleration. He said this many times in class so it might be on the test somewhere?
What did the cotton industry do? Who did it? What was the main invention that made this process go quicker?
They made clothes, and most of this was carried out by women and children. The main invention that helped them was the Spinning Jenny.
What is utilitarian?
the devoid of art and beauty, pragmatic
What was the problem with Industrialization as far as money goes?
The rich get richer, the poor get poorer
What are the 4 main factors that contributed to global war?
4. Social darwinism
How does industrialization lead to a global war?
There was a start up of mass consumption and a competition of who could sell and trade the most goods. This can lead to arguments, targeting of a certain group who is doing well, etc.
How does imperialism contribute to a global war?
Many European countries start fighting each other for different land and can get mad by a country conquering the land so that in itself is already kind of a war.
How does nationalism contribute to a global war?
Nationalism is all about uniting one country so it can conquer its main problem. Well if the main problem is another country then you have everyone turned against that country. Nationalism also makes people get big heads and think that the other countries are all worse than your own.
How does Social Darwinism contribute to a global war?
The people who are considered the "weak" are tired of their land trying to be taken over and they are going to start to fight for themselves and their countries/colonies.
Who was King Leopold?
He was the King when the Congo massacre occurred. He knew people were dying but since he didn't do the actual killing it made it much easier for him to ignore it and not recognize the severity of it. He just instructed the people under him to basically work these people to death.